Chronology Glossary of Names and Terms Iago in a Nutshell
Milgram, Magic and Murder
Whats Wrong With This Picture?
I'm not a mind reader. I don't have to be to know what a white supremacist who patterns himself after Adolph Hitler has to be thinking under certain circumstances. I don't have to wonder about the nature of his dreams or the source of his inspiration when they are readily available for anyone to see. This sequence of events is based on public record and on public conduct such as Mark Fuhrman's genocidal racist tirade against blacks at the mere allusion to black men and white women together. It began with a word Mark Fuhrman used over and over in his first book to describe other peoples motives in the O.J. Simpson case and to deny his own. It's a word that describes what most murders associated with famous people have in common. The word is, obsession....
1975-1980:Fresh out of the Marine Corps, Mark Fuhrman joins the LAPD with high hopes of becoming a superstar on the job and in the media. Hes tall, athletic, well-built, well-spoken, well-read, and highly intelligent. Women think hes attractive. Men think he should run for political office. Hes Dirty Harry and Sherlock Holmes in one. Best of all, hes real. His dangerous exploits and brilliant crime-solving adventures have got to make great newspaper copy, right?
Wrong. As 1980 closes, his personal and professional lives have "failure" written all over them. He has two ex-wives, no money and no future. The "big bust" that would have made him sought after by book publishers, movie producers, big-name talk show hosts and news anchors has not materialized. He enters the depths of depression. His job has, in effect, given him a license to "get" anyone he wants, as long as nobody knows or cares who they are. He wants outwith pay.
The year before, O.J. Simpson, who was appearing daily in TV ads for Hertz rent-a-car running through airports, starred in a movie called Goldie and the Boxer. O.J. was the boxer. A little white girl was Goldie. Fuhrman had a tough time getting the image of the black football star and the little white girl out of his mind. Whenever he saw O.J. on television he thought about him with the young white girl. When he saw a little girl like the one who played Goldie, he thought about her with him. How could he help it then? How can he help it now? The Jews who run Hollywood won't let him forget!
With everything else in his life going wrong, movie producers Jim Abrahams, Jerry Zucker and David Zucker get his attention in their 1980 slapstick comedy hit, Airplane! with two black men on an airplane "talking jive." In the very next scene, a little white girl tells a little white boy that she likes her coffee blacklike her men.
Fuhrman thinks O.J!, but he is not yet obsessed with him. He's thinking mostly about himself, his future, and what he can do to become the superstar he feels he was meant to be.
1981-1984:On television, O.J. Simpson is still running through airports for Hertz. He also reprises his role as the boxer in a Goldie and the Boxer movie made for TV. Fuhrman's hatred of black men in general begins to center on O.J. as a symbol for everything he hates about them. He tells his police psychiatrists that he is having recurring dreams of violence and the dreams are spilling over into his real life treatment of suspected criminals.
Fuhrmans efforts to get a psychological disability retirement convinces his psychiatrists that: 1) He has faked his disability in order to rip off the system. 2) He had done enough homework on the subject of stress-related psychological disorders to believe that he can fool the experts. 3) He should not be allowed to carry a gun.
During his two-year paid leave, he watches a lot of television and absorbs himself in his other interests, which include blood sports, history, writing, art, movies, and movie-making. When his pension is denied, he is transferred to West LA, where the stars and the star-makers reside. He loses a days pay for using a potentially deadly choke hold on a black, 18-year-old jaywalker outside of a "white" movie theater. He becomes active in his 8,000-member union called the Police Protective League. Some African-American officers will later refer to this organization in a federal lawsuit as "a bastion of white supremacy." He now has an extensive pool of resources he can use like a private intelligence and covert operations network as one of several means toward furthering his private ambitions. He could have become a detective long before, but stayed on the streets because thats where the action was. He needed the action the way some people need to have sex; hot, rough and often. That hasn't changed.
1985-1989:In a television first, O.J. Simpson joins the cast of HBOs 1st & Ten as a character much like himself who has sex with white women as though his color was irrelevant. The audience is clearly not supposed to see color. Fuhrman sees red. His obsession with O.J. begins.
He finds out all he can about the star, right down to the clothes he wears and where he buys them. He spends extra time in airports. He learns that O.J.s "child bride" (with brown hair like the little girl in Airplane! dyed blond like the girl who played Goldie) was born in Germany. He learns that her mother was a pure Aryan, born and raised in Germany. He learns all about Nicole's and O.J.'s friends Al Cowlings, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Marcus Allen, who are as open about their relations with white women as O.J. is. Cowlings is dating Nicoles sister, Denise.
Fuhrman's focus of action is narrowed by a movie called Guilty Conscience, a meeting with a screenwriter named Laura Hart, and a test of power between the LAPDs Lt. Peggy York and the Police Protective League. Through the intervention of his union representative, he gets his way. By joining a gang/narcotics unit, he had hoped to find O.J. mixed up in cocaine trafficking. He does not succeed with that, but the job helps him to make some key contacts in the police serology lab and to recruit covert operatives with no known links to him or the Police Protective Leaguejunkies.
Evidence is stored at police headquarters in downtown LA where security is a joke. This is why he can tell Laura Hart that he can create the evidence he needs after his arrests. He cant do all of that right now, but hes working on it. Soon, there wont be any locked doors he cant open.
He sees opportunity in striking up a friendship with a black cop called Ron Shipp who has a background in psychology and is known as a buddy of Simpson. Shipp is married, but tells his friends about the other women in his life. White women. Fuhrman toys with the idea of murdering O.J. and setting up Shipp, Nicole, and Denise for the fall. He, of course, would crack the case and become a media sensation. Hes open to whatever he can use to make a name for himself and to destroy O.J. Simpson as a man and a symbol. He doesnt want to make him a martyr. Thats the problem with killing him outright. He has to find another way.
After arranging to meet O.J. and Nicole on a phantom domestic dispute call, he gets Nicole to use 911 in the future without having to say a word about it. The standard North American emergency number is written in bold letters on the rear quarter of his police car. All he has to do is take a pointed look at the rear quarter of his police squad car when O.J. isn't paying attention to him. Nicole is nobody's fool. She now has a sure way to keep O.J. in line. For Fuhrman its a great way to establish a motive for her and Shipp to kill O.J. The only question is, how many calls to 911 will it take to establish a pattern of spouse abuse?
In 1986, he expresses his feelings about mixed couples to Kathleen Bell in the most violent, racist terms when she casually mentions O.J.'s close friend, Marcus Allen. Not only did she tell him that her white girlfriend, Andrea Terry, was attracted to men like Allen, she thought that Fuhrman and Allen looked enough alike that Terry would like Fuhrman, too. Thats what made him so angry, the thought that anyone, especially a white woman, could think that he and a black man looked anything alike.
Still playing with ideas about O.J. and Nicole in 1987, he goes to Robbery Detective School with Ron Phillips and learns how the pros open locked doors with and without keys. Being a detective also gives him greater access to the evidence room and contacts in the lab through which he can learn all he needs to know about the labs personnel, its practices and its facilities. Now when he tells Laura Hart about the ease with which he can make evidence say whatever he wants it to, the evidence that he can do it is indisputable. The only safeguard against tampering by detectives is a key to a locked door in the police station, which any robbery detective would have to know how to circumvent.
His hopes of making it big in the movies through the producers Laura Hart has introduced him to are dashed in 1988 when he sees a caricature of himself in The Naked Gun paired with a nigger, Americas nigger, O.J. Simpson! He'd had every reason to believe that Frank Drebin, who seemed to bear no resemblance to him when he was created in 1982, had been permanently retired the same year. Now, after Laura Heart has paraded him in front of all those Jew producers he sees something in the character he hadn't seen before. He's sure that there's a connection. He feels humiliated and betrayed. He is no longer just thinking about murder, hes thinking about Kathleen Bell and Markus Allen. Hes thinking about body doubles, the niggers on death row and the Jews who should be there. And hes making real plans to get even.
On the first day of 1989, Nicole gets drunk at a party. She misinterprets a remark made by Marcus Allens wife to mean that O.J. bought an expensive gift for another woman. She knows that he is cheating on her but she could never prove it. Now that she thinks she has proof and O.J. is lying about it, she physically attacks him in their bedroom and accuses him of having sex with Michelle, their maid. During the scuffle, she bumps her head. O.J. grabs her in a headlock and forces her out of the bedroom shouting and cursing at her as he always does when he is extremely angry. She goes to the maids quarters from inside the house, cursing her and threatening her with great bodily harm.
From this point on her hatred of O.J.'s housekeeper will be barely restrained until she loses her temper again shortly before her death. It will begin with an argument in the backyard. Michelle will leave. Nicole will follow. With no further words between them, Nicole will punch her hard on the side of her face. That will be the first time she physically assaults the tiny woman when she's not her usual pleasant self. It will not be the first time she tried. The first time is now, on New Year's Day, 1989.
Michelle calls 911 while Nicole tries without success to enter her room. The line stays open as Nicole disappears and Michelle waits, hoping that she wont have to follow through on the call and no one will learn that she made it. But Nicole has come out of the house and around to the side where she has used her master key to get in. Michelle screams in surprise and fear as Nicole swings at her but misses. She slaps Nicole as hard as she can. The blow lands on the side of Nicole's neck. Nicole snatches the phone from Michelle's hand and hangs it up as Michelle grabs her by the hair from behind. O.J. comes in, pushes Michelle aside and tussles with Nicole on Michelle's bed, ranting all the while. He forces her outside, takes her master key to keep her from getting back into Michelle's room and goes back to the main house. He locks her outside in her bra and sweatpants and returns in a huff to his own room unaware that anyone has called 911.
O.J. is as furious at Nicole's violent behavior as she is with his philandering. She's wrong about the specifics but right about his cheating in general. And now he won't let her in the house. And it's cold and damp. And she has already fallen down in the mud behind the garage outside of Michelle's door. She is so angry and frustrated she doesn't know which way to turn. What more can go wrong to start the new year?
Nicole sees a police car on Rockingham and hides in the bushes by the Ashford gate, afraid that they have come to get her for assaulting her weaker, smaller maid. To her horror, the police car turns the corner on Ashford and pulls up to the intercom post on the driveway. From her concealed position, she can see two uniformed officers. The male driver gets out of the car, rings the intercom and waits forever, in Nicole's mind, for a reply. Will it be O.J. or Michelle? Will they team up against her again? Did O.J. call some of his cop friends? Was there someone on the line when she got to the phone? What did they hear?
Cold and frightened, Nicole stays out of sight until Michelle answers the intercom. Officer Edwards identifies himself and asks what the problem is. This is the moment she's been dreading. Where can she go half-clothed if Michelle buzzes him in? Nowhere.
Michelle tells Edwards that there are no problems. He answers by telling her that a woman called 911 and said that she was being beaten. He says that he isn't going to leave until he speeks to her.
That's it! Nicole's way out, and her chance to hit back the way she'd tried to do with the calls she had actually made to 911. She realizes that she must have some marks on her body that match the officer's idea of what had happened and Michelle didn't. Only then does she come out of hiding, open the gate and fall into the officer's arms. No one ever asks her why she remained hidden and silent for so long with the police only a few feet away. No one asks why she didnt open the gate and seek their protection immediately if she was in imminent fear of being killed by her husband.
No one wants to hear O.J.s or the maids version of what happened, or why Michelle came outside, pleaded with Nicole to stop what she was doing and tried to pull her out of the police car by her arm. Nicoles physical appearance and her cries of, "Hes going to kill me!" are as far as anyone can see or hear or think.
Fuhrman studies the case and figures out the real story with Nicoles confidential confession to Ron Shipp to confirm it. The confession is only frosting on the cake. Time talks. Space talks. O.J. always talked loudly and continuously when he was extremely angry with Nicole the way he was doing when he came out of the house and saw Nicole with the police.
The time between the squad car's arrival and Nicole's emergence from hiding tells Fuhrman that she wasn't waiting there for the police. With O.J. nowhere in sight and a closed door between him and Nicole, she would have dashed for the gate immediately if O.J. had just thrown her out. But if he had beaten her, thrown her out and closed himself in behind the door she couldn't have seen him as a threat to her life when the police arrived. And if O.J. had been the one who slapped her when the emergency line was open, where was all of his shouting and cursing during the slapping and the three minutes of silence that preceded it?
Nicole's story is a poor match for the evidence, and Edwards' assumptions about the 911 call are demonstrably false. Yet, the department is following through on the complaint as though there was no rational question of O.J.'s guilt. The only thing anyone wants to know is whether the wife-beating incident is isolated to that one time or part of a pattern. Fuhrman has thus seen what will happen if Nicole's words and the condition of her body say the perpetrator was O.J. no matter what anyone or anything else might have to say. He knows that photos of her with mud on her pants and a bruise on her head will be interpreted according to the officers verbal description of a cut lip, a black eye and swollen face.
By paying attention to details that everyone else dismissed and reserving judgment until he was sure he had all the facts, Fuhrman knows more about what really happened than anyone, including O.J. or Nicole. He knows that Michelles handprint was on Nicoles neck, Michelle pulled her hair and Michelle left the bruise on her right arm when she was trying to pull her from the police car. No one has bothered to add up all of the facts, just the obvious ones. He knows that nothing was as it appeared because of a compounding of assumptions beginning with the 911 call that made Nicole look like the victim of a violent crime perpetrated by O.J. Simpson. Even his best friend believes from the evidence he's seen that O.J. must have hit her. Plus, she did say that O.J. was going to kill her.
Change of plans. Nicole is going to die violently. The obvious killer is going to be O.J. Simpson, the wife beater.
Nobody is going to take the word of a rich black man and a lowly Filipino maid in Brentwood over the word of a white police officer and a white, female victimespecially a dead one. Everyone is going to "see" what he tells them is there whether the photographs confirm it or not. That pattern has been set. He knows what to expect. Everybody is going to see "Nordberg" as the killer, which will also kill The Naked Gun. And everyone is going to think, Othello in a blue knit cap.
Visions of Laurence Olivier and Ronald Coleman in blackface race across Fuhrmans mind. He sees Shelly Winters in Night of the Hunter and the cake-cutting scene in The Naked Gun. Each vision pulls another behind it in tandem, like convicts linked by a single chain. He sees the long-bladed knife and the glove holding it. He sees the Swiss Army knife connection to a very unusual shoe. He sees Anthony Hopkins from Guilty Conscience on an airplane falsely accused of murder, Swoosie Kurtz following Blythe Danner into a shoe store, and "Nordbergs" shoes on "Drebins" feet. He sees a letter addressed to the district attorney telling him to assume the husband's guilt in case the wife is murdered. Its all there. Now all he has to do is put it together with only the tiniest bit of editing to fit the existing facts and circumstances.
Fuhrman writes a letter to the Brentwood city attorney that results in Simpsons arrest and public branding as a batterer. That letter gives every 911 call attributed to Nicole, without testimony or evidence that O.J. touched her, the same weight as the call she was assumed to have made in 89. He knows that she didnt make that call. Hes the only one who bothered to look at all of the evidence before deciding how it had to fit together. He now knows how little it will take for the appearance of truth to overwhelm the real thing. The 85 incident he writes about in his letter to the city attorney can be seen as an example of spouse abuse only through the prism of what everyone thinks O.J. did to Nicole on New Years Day. By that standard, a loud shouting match with the right spin on it would have sufficed.
Fuhrmans account of the 85 incident will stand unchallenged for years. His portrait of O.J., the pimp-like controller wielding a deadly weapon will appear in a diary allegedly written by Nicole, in a phone call allegedly made by her, and in the testimony of Denise Brown, Faye Resnick and Ron Shipp. It will be lifted whole cloth by Marcia Clark and Chris Darden, who will never trace it back to its origin.
1990:Fuhrman continues his surveillance of O.J. and Nicole with the ongoing assistance of Ron Shipp, Denise Brown, and his new partner Brad Roberts. Taking cues from a movie called Millennium in which time travelers arrange a "chance" meeting, and his own success in doing so five years earlier, he sets his preliminary plan into motion. Of all the drug abusers with special skills, like William Wasz, that he secretly has working for him, his most valuable recruit is Faye Resnick. She arranges a "chance" meeting with Nicole and worms her way into Nicoles life a little at a time.
1991:Fuhrman sees and identifies with the movie Ricochet, from which he gathers ideas and inspiration to complete his murder/frame-up plan. He becomes a homicide detective with Brad Roberts, and begins dry runs on simulated targets.
1992-1993:Fuhrman gets a pair of Bruno Maglis from one of his helpers with no known connection to him. Through his friendship with Phillips and his involvement in the union, he maneuvers Phillips into position to take the job of West LA Homicide Coordinator. O.J. and Nicole get divorced. Nicole moves to Gretna Green, just west of 875 S. Bundy. Wasz begins stalking her. Phillips takes his coordinator post.
Fuhrman conducts a dress rehearsal of the killing with the murder in Brentwood of the young nightclub owner and promoter Brett Cantor. He knows that O.J. has a large collection of knives. From the autopsy report he learns that he need only choose a knife that come close to one in O.J.'s collection to incriminate him once that knife is found and stolen, and discovered sometime later with the victim's blood on it. But he sees no way for the so-called elite Robbery-Homicide unit not to be called when he kills Nicole and, therefore, no sure-fire way of being everywhere he has to be during the search when he has to be there.
He repeatedly tries to get into the unit but is repeatedly turned down. To insure that O.J. ends up on death row, Nicole is going to have to die an especially horrible death and there is going to have to be a second victim. That shouldn't be hard, with Marcus Allen, Keith Zlomsowitch and all the other men in her life who could be enticed to meet with her at the right time and place depending on O.J.'s schedule. Fuhrman has to play that card as it falls. But, if all else fails, he can always kill Nicole and Ron Shipp.
Another promising candidate for the second victim, the one whose death should put O.J. on death row, is Brett Cantor's buddy, Ron Goldman. With a little encouragement from Faye Resnick, he thinks it can be arranged. Goldman's death would make it two Jews down and one to go, one Jew for each of the producers of Airplane! and The Naked Gun. Fuhrman's only regret is that he has to settle for symbols rather than the actual men he wants so badly to see dead. Still, a Jew is a Jew, and any dead one with some connection to Hollywood and each other will have to suffice.
He still has some loose ends he has to tie up. He has to find a way to take charge of the case and to stay in charge, no matter who leads it officially. He does. Her name is Marcia Clark. Shes smart, tough, and ambitious. Shes extremely pro-cop and she has a special hatred for men she believes have battered women. Best of all, shes a Jew. She has a reputation for dropping everything to help cops with warrant problems. If it looks like a wife-beater killed a woman and a Jew in a high profile case where there are warrant problems, somebody from Robbery/Homicide will give her a call, and she will be there. Now, all he has to do is make sure that he is the first detective on the scene. With his good friend Phillips in charge of all three teams of detectives who could be called, the one team everyone knows he will call first is the one consisting of Mark Fuhrman and Brad Roberts.
O.J. gets into a shouting match with Nicole who tells the 911 operator that O.J. broke down her door and she is afraid of him. She says, "I think you know his record." His record consists of eight previous calls by her after Mark Fuhrman recorded his 1985 visit to Rockingham in 1989. This tape and the two incidences involving Fuhrman, for which there is no record of a call by Nicole, are going to be the only 911 tapes prosecutors will use to show a pattern of spouse abuse resulting in Nicole's death at the hands of O.J. Simpson.
1994:Nicoles move to Bundy in January delays her death by 6 months. Her continued involvement with Ron Goldman settles the question of the second victim. When all is ready, he makes his move, drawing heavily on the movies for the killing and the framing.
In the movies, scenes are frequently shot out of sequence to accommodate the real-world needs of everyone involved and to use the prevailing circumstances to best advantage. Keeping in close cell phone contact with Roberts and Shipp who are keeping an eye on O.J., Nicole and Ron Goldman, Fuhrman follows the limo driver north on the San Diego Freeway to Brentwood. To help establish a killing time between 10:00 and 10:30, he drives his light green and white SUV into an alley southeast of Nicole's condo at 10:17 (before the killing) and retrieves a piece of an old wooden fence. He makes enough racket to insure that someone can testify to seeing a vehicle like O.J.'s Bronco where a fence matches the wood found near the Bronco on Rockingham. Fuhrman also exits his SUV briefly wearing an LAPD sweatsuit, brown leather gloves over latex gloves and a ski mask.
A witness will, indeed, come forward and testify to seeing a man roughly O.J.'s height and build in that alley at that time driving a light-colored SUV. But when Marcia Clark decides that the killing started rather than ended at 10:15 or 10:20, she will ignore that testimony. The stick will also run into a collision with any timeline involving O.J. as the killer. Without that foreknowledge, Mark Fuhrman goes ahead with his plan to smash Nicole's watch and set the hands back to 10:03 after he kills her at 10:40. He passes off the stick and the glove for Brad Roberts to plant after O.J. leaves for the airport and he heads home where Robert Heidstra sees his Scout turning south on Bundy at 10:45 or shortly thereafter.
As a consequence of his obsession with the main characters in The Naked Gun series Fuhrman leaves behind scores of clues that point directly to him. Among those clues are his theory of the lost gloves, his theory of where the wood in front of the Bronco came from, his theory of the killer jumping the fence and bumping into the house, his theory of the Swiss Army knife, and the sobriety test he gave to Kato Kaelin.
The socks he leaves on the brown and white carpet in O.J.'s bedroom come from two other screenplays with similar carpets, Guilty Conscience, and a 1988 remake of "Shadow Play" from The Twilight Zone. Just seeing the carpet triggered the impulse to put something incriminating on it. If he could have recalled where the impulse came from, he would not have given in to it.
1995-1998:O.J. is tried and acquitted of murder by a racially mixed jury which is often referred to in the press as a "black" jury or a "predominately black" jury because of its nine black members. His defenders are accused by media commentators of "playing the race card" for bringing up Fuhrman's use of the n-word and other indications that he might not have been a credible witness. Common wisdom in the white community holds that the race card argument is valid because the biased and unintelligent black jury ignored the evidence of O.J.'s guilt and acquitted him because Fuhrman used the n-word. The most highly respected advocate of this view is Jeffery Toobin whose book on the subject receives wide-spread media praise for his "assiduously even-handed" reporting and "sensible judgment."
The Goldmans and Browns begin civil action to find O.J. responsible for killing Ron and Nicole.
Fuhrman pleads no contest to the charge of perjury. He is fined $200. Many people are angry with him for giving the black jury an excuse to free O.J. Others are more outraged by the defense team for even suggesting that Fuhrman might have been racially motivated to frame O.J. Simpson for a crime that O.J. "obviously" committed.
No black people are permitted to sit on the jury for final judgment. The judge rules that the defense cannot call Mark Fuhrman to the stand or argue that their client was framed. O.J. loses the civil suit.
Fuhrmans book, Murder in Brentwood, becomes the nations # 1 best-seller. He goes on the news and talk show circuit as a master detective and writes another highly touted book, one about a murder in Connecticut linked to the Kennedy family. He advises a publicist for his publisher, Regney Publishing, Inc., on the value of persuading Monica Lewinsky to get an incriminating Presidential stain on her dress and to preserve it as evidence. There is no more talk of Mark Fuhrman the racist or the perjurer. Dominick Dunne was one of few reporters granted a permanent seat in Judge Itos court. On the MSNBC news talk show Crime and Punishment, Dunne and Fuhrman both appear. Dunne calls Fuhrman "one of the great detectives ever."
MY THESIS: O.J. didnt do it; Fuhrman did. The quantity of evidence against Simpson is an invalid substitute for the quality thats missing. The quality of blood, fiber, timeline, tampering and contamination evidence presented by the defense justified reasonable doubt. But the equation that follows from the uncertainty is unequivocal: If it wasnt O.J., it had to have been a man with a laundry list of rare mental, physical and psychological attributes, specialized training, well-placed friends, and inside knowledge of the victims, the accused, and the California criminal justice system. He had to have a leading role in the investigation, a compelling motive for the killing and the framing, as well as opportunities to do both. That man exists. His name is Mark Fuhrman.
MY METHODOLOGY:First, I gathered all of the data I could to draw a profile of the killer. His height, shoe size, and access to both crime scenes were givens. He had to have been able to dispose of some evidence that would have incriminated him, whoever he was, and leave behind evidence that appeared to incriminate only O.J. Simpson. When I thought I had enough facts to work with, I picked the most likely scenario and ran with it as long as additional facts supported it. No new discoveries made under close inspection adhered to the assumption that it was O.J. Even the dramatic photos of him wearing Bruno Maglis tell a dramatically different story when you learn more about them and the men who produced them late in the civil case.
If O.J. was framed, he had to have enough in common with the killer to look guilty to the uncritical eye, which he did. Only the killer would have it all. Fuhrman had it all, right down to the unusual way he walkedwith the toes of his size 12 shoes pointed straight ahead, like the bloody shoeprints left by the killer on Bundy. The more I looked into the possibility that it could not have been Fuhrman, the more evidence I found that it could have been no one else.
MY MOTIVATION:In 1991, I began writing a novel set in a future America where history can be recorded on film retroactively. By 1997, when I was trying to finish the last book of what had become a trilogy, I hit a snag. All of the work Id done since the Bundy murders to get around the question of O.J.s guilt or innocence was becoming increasingly implausible. The men in my projection of the future who ran the American mass media the way Jefferson Davis would have run his, had to know whether O.J. was guilty or not. It had to make a difference in whether or not they told the truth about it. My problem was, I didnt know the truth myself.
The standard of proof set down in the civil trial had become the medias license to be openly contemptuous of anyone who expressed doubt of O.J.s guilt. It made it easier for them to forgive Fuhrmans sins and to be increasingly supportive of him as the celebrity he had always wanted to be. If he was the man I thought he was, the implications for African-American mento start withwere chilling. If I could see it coming, so could he. Here was a pattern for image assassination that anyone with his foresight could see, and anyone with his ruthlessness could follow. If this was the path of the future, my trilogy wasnt fiction; it was a sneak preview.
Most people assume they know my motive for accusing Fuhrman, an ex-Marine and Vietnam vet, of being a racist butcher of defenseless human beings. Those who know that my first nonfiction book was dedicated to Dennis Hammond, a Marine murdered in captivity by the Viet Cong, should know better. "Smartfellows" is a tribute to him, a name he coined that stands more for tolerance than it does for smarts. Ive spent decades of my life and tens of thousands of dollars to fight the "racist murderer" image of Vietnam vets which has been falsely applied to men like Dennis and me for 30 years. Few things are as important to me as changing that image, of getting the history books right, no matter how unpopular the verdict.
Through Mark Fuhrmans study of psychology and the history of Nazi Germany its likely that he ran across Stanley Milgrams classic study on obedience to authority. You may know of it from a 1976 made-for-TV movie, starring William Shatner, called The Tenth Level.
Dr. Milgram, of Yale University, conducted his study from 1960 to 1963 to learn the mechanism by which the men in Himmlers SS Special Group were able to function as they had in Hitlers "final solution." To test his hypothesis that a universal force was at work, he devised an ingenious experiment involving one test subject at a time and two covert helpers.
The volunteers walked into a controlled environment where circumstantial evidence, common knowledge and common-sense assumptions were used to deceive them. They were told by an actor in a white lab coat that they were there to study the affects of negative reinforcement on learning. Another of Milgrams confederates showed up in the guise of another volunteer.
The phony scientist told the real subject and the fake one that one of them would play the role of teacher to the other, who would act as the student. Milgram fixed the drawing to decide who would play which role so that his assistant would always be the student. The ringers job was to pretend to be shocked when his incorrect answers to the teachers questions prompted them to depressed a fake shock lever on a machine. The real test was to see how far the real subject would go in obeying the instructions of the fake scientist.
A prestigious universitys name lent credibility to what the test subjects were told about the study. The small room was partitioned so that the subject and the "scientist" were together. The "student," strapped in a chair with electrodes attached to his body and wires running to the fake shock machine on the teachers table, could be seen in a separate chamber through a window.
The shock box measured about a foot high, a foot deep, and two feet across. It had 30 settings grouped into ten levels of severity, ranging from 15 to 450 volts, with 30 corresponding levers to administer the shocks. It had lights, needle-gages, and it buzzed when the levers were depressed. "Before the test began," the subjects were wired to the machine with special paste between the electrode and the skin, supposedly "to help conduct electricity" and "to prevent burns." Then they were given a 45-volt jolt, supposedly to let them know how it felt. The real purpose was to convince them that the wires running to the student carried an electric current capable of inflicting severe pain.
To reinforce that idea, the first level of pain, which went up to 45 volts, was labeled "Slight Shock." The second level was "Moderate Shock." Third was "Strong Shock," fourth, "Very Strong Shock," fifth, "Intense Shock," sixth, "Extreme Intensity Shock," seven, "Danger." Milgrams colleaguesall expertspredicted that only the rare, severely disturbed individual, would get this far. In fact, everyone in the study reached this levelmeaning you and I, in their place, would almost certainly have tortured a man up to that point. The eighth level was labeled "Severe Shock." The last two had triple Xs instead of names. 65 % of the subjects went all the way to the top of the tenth level.
To get a good feel for what went on in the study, you have to keep in mind the feedback the teachers were getting from the student and the scientist. While the student showed every sign of suffering at the level indicated on the shock box, the authority figure assured the teachers that it was okay to continue shocking him. He told them to proceed even when the student complained of heart trouble and alternately begged and demanded to be released. The teachers were usually able to subordinate their own rising level of distress to accomplishing the task at hand for two reasons: 1) Trust in the integrity of the institution, and 2) A sense of duty to everyone else involved.
These were honorable men and women volunteering their time and risking possible pain and injury to themselves for the betterment of mankind. As far as they knew, they were taking the same risks coming into the study as the man who ended up in the torture chamber. The scientist reminded them of that forcefully when they balked, and gentle assurance that it was all right to continue didnt work.
In the end, they did suffer for the betterment of mankind. They felt that they had, indeed, been a part of an important study when they were debriefed. Milgram was called on the carpet for the questionable ethics of making them endure the mental agony of thinking they were inflicting physical agony on someone else. Paradoxically, his experiment proved that none of the subjects went beyond delivering a level of shock that they felt personally responsible for. That was the common denominator he was looking for in all cruel acts of conformity, from joining a lynch mob for the purpose of murdering one or two men, to joining a "special group" to murder millions. He called it the "agentic state," a state of mind which exempts people from the responsibly of their own actions by seeing themselves as mere agents for a higher authority.
Think what higher authority means to any of us in any context. It means acknowledging the right or the sheer power of someone or something to dictate our actions. It means fear of physical or psychological punishment if we fail to go along with the program. We all have limits on the extent to which we will do what we are expected to, but the pressure to conform is strong enough to keep most of us in line most of the time. Milgrams "agentic state" concept takes all the mystery out of why good people in great numbersespecially volunteersdo horrible things; they do it for what they believe to be a good cause.
Mark Fuhrman would have appreciated the extent to which Milgrams most famous study owed its success to lies, misdirection and impressive-looking props. These were the tools of Joseph Goebbels, Hitlers minister of propaganda. But Goebbels didnt invent them. Shakespeares villains, Richard III, Lady MacBeth, and Iago, used them all. Magicians before and after them made those techniques for creating persuasive illusions their stock in trade... You see a machine in the Psychology Department of Yale. People you trust tell you that it generates shocks. It flashes and buzzes; it gives you a shock. What do you believe?
Tom Lange, Phil Vannatter, Marcia Clark, and Colin Yamauchi came into a situation where they expected the truth to be what it appear to be. Their duty, as they saw it, was to make the strongest case they could against the obvious culprit, O.J. Simpson. They never guessed that someone with a hidden agenda might have been in charge of their earliest perceptions. It never occurred to them that the killer was one of them, that he used two knives, carried a gun, wore a badge and pointed the obvious way for them to follow.
All of the blood evidence against O.J. begins with Mark Fuhrmans strange theory that the killer was bleeding from his left hand. Not so strange when O.J. was found to have a cut on his left hand. Take a good look at Fuhrmans right hand. Do any of these other key pointers to O.J.s guilt within an 8" radius of that hand make more sense as evidence that got there by accident or design?
Aaronson, EllenWalked past 875 South Bundy with Danny Mandel between 10:28-10:30 on the evening or June 12, without seeing the open gate, Nicoles body, her blood or the bloody paw prints of her dog. They never heard the dog bark. That narrowed the window of opportunity too much for O.J. to have gotten rid of some evidence and done everything consistent with all of the other evidence found at Rockingham by Detective Mark Fuhrman and his partner Brad Roberts. In the civil case, the plaintiffs had to accept the timing of the murders bracketed by the testimony of Aaronson, Mandel and others because there was no credible way around it.
Abrams, DanReporter/commentator for Court TV. During the criminal trial against O.J. Simpson, Abrams established himself as a national, five-star expert on the case. In the civil trial, Abrams reported that photos of O.J. wearing Bruno Magli shoes supposedly taken by a young photographer named E. J. Flammer, were "proof that O.J. Simpson is a killer." The admission of the plaintiffs former FBI experts under cross-examination that the photos could have been faked, did not prompt Abrams to retract his earlier statement. He had spoken the minds of the vast majority of his colleagues who have since referred to the Flammer photos as proof of O.J.s guilt, and used them to ridicule anyone who disagrees.
Abudrahn, MichelleO.J. Simpsons Filipino housekeeper. She left O.J.s employ in April, 1994 when Nicole struck her hard enough to knock her down and leave her face red and swollen. The genesis of the assault may have gone back to 1989 when Nicole told police, responding to an anonymous 911 call, that O.J. beat her with his fists, kicked her and pulled her hair. Michelle Abudrahn sided with O.J. in saying that nothing like that happened. Nicole allowed others to assume that she called 911 (see Edwards, John) but never said so herself. In O.J.s first public comment about the episode shortly after it happened, he told an interviewer that the maid called 911 as an "overreaction" to something she heard. Evidence suggests that she did make the call, that she left the line open rather than report a problem because she was afraid that she might have been overreacting. Evidence suggests that she was the one who was heard screaming on the 911 tape, and that she was the one who slapped Nicole firstin 1989.
Adlen, AndrewBuyer of cars auctioned and impounded by police. A business competitor (see Balasini, William) identified him as a fellow witness to the accessibility of O.J.s Bronco in a "restricted" area of Viertels garage on June 21, and the lack of blood inside. Mr. Adlen was not called to testify by either side.
AkitaA breed of dog. An Akitas, Kato, and a Chow, Chachi, were owned jointly by Nicole and O.J. When the Simpsons separated, Kato went with Nicole; Chachi went with O.J. Both Nicole and O.J. frequently picked up the dog in the others care, O.J. transporting them mostly in his Bronco (probable source of Bronco fibers on Bundy)Kato had a habit of running off whenever the gate was opened. He was outside of the gate when the killing started. O.J. said that he took Chachi out for a walk around 10:00. The blood drop pattern at the Rockingham gate matches his account. He didnt know when or how he was cut.
While pointing out the relationship of the blood drop on Bundy to the left of the left shoeprint, Fuhrman theorized it was the killers blood, and that the Akita had bitten the killer.
AlibiA conflict in time, place or circumstance that makes it impossible for someone to have committed a crime. O.J. could not have committed the murders he was charged with. Mark Fuhrman could have. An innocent person need not have a perfect alibi. But to frame him, the people doing the framing have to know that he does not have one.
The defense teams failure to consider the possibility that O.J. was set up by a small group of conspirators well in advance of the murders left them vulnerable to the prosecutions argument that a police conspiracy was impossible. The sheer size of such a conspiracy, after the fact, along with the belief that none of the officers involved could have known whether or not O.J. had an alibi, gave the police an alibi.
Attorneys for the defense and prosecution argued that O.J.s Bronco was crucial to the question of whether or not he could have committed the murders. If the defense could show that it was in the same place before during and after the murder O.J. would have an alibi; if the prosecution could show that it wasnt, he wouldnt.
Neither side was able to prove its contention. However, the slight angle to the curb at which the Bronco was parked gave rise to Det. Mark Fuhrmans theory that the driver parked it in great haste after returning from Bundy. He testified during the preliminary hearing that the back stuck out as much as "a foot" farther than the front, an angle of 10 degrees or more. The actual angle was 2 degrees, which amounts to an error too great to have been arrived at accidentally by a trained observer. Though O.J. pointed out the sharp turn he had to make to go from his drive to the street, his defense team did not match the angle that would have resulted from that turn to the angel found by police. That angle, together with the pattern of blood drops on his driveway gave him an airtight alibi.
Mark Fuhrmans partner, Brad Roberts, characterized the droplets of blood on O.J.s driveway as going into the compound. They couldnt have been. The width of the gate, where it was hinged, and the width of O.J.s body could only have meant that he left his blood on the driveway on his way out. Roberts was the only detective to get close enough to them to see whether they showed a tell-tale spread of finger-like projections from the droplets in the direction of travel. The photos didnt show it, and the criminalists didnt say it. The pattern itself, however, could not have been made by a man with a cut on the left side of his body as large as O.J. had when he returned from Chicago. The size of the droplets could have been made only by someone with a superficial cut, which O.J. said he had before he left for Chicago.
Allport, Dr. Gordon W.Author of The Nature of Prejudice. Allport literally wrote the book on prejudice, from its biological, historical and cultural origins to its various manifestations and implications in predicting human behavior. Many people unfamiliar with Allports work believe that a white racist like Mark Fuhrman is incapable of having a black friend like Ron Shipp. Those who are familiar with Allports work know that allowing for exceptions to the rule is an essential component of prejudice. It is the only way to maintain the illusion of rational judgment about stereotypes or to see oneself as fair-minded in the face of obvious cases in which the rule does not apply. Allport showed how stubborn stereotypes were, partly because of how natural it is for human beings to see complete and inaccurate images when presented with partial or contradictory facts. Such facts are replete in the O.J. Simpson murder case. Only someone familiar with Allports work could have gotten others to "see" O.J. as a spouse-abuser and a murderer if the available evidence did not support those assertions. Without the involvement of Mark Fuhrman and Ron Shipp, the available evidence would not support that assertion. One of the difficulties in pinning Fuhrman down as the killer was in showing that he knew enough about Allport to make practical use of his discoveries. He studied enough psychology to think that he could fool the experts on the police force in 1982 and 83. Its difficult to see how he could have done that without knowing about Allport. The fact that he chose to put a picture in his first book that showed Marcia Clark holding a copy of The Nature of Prejudice speaks for itself.
Alonzo, Rosa ElviaNicoles housekeeper. Ms. Alonzo told police that a key ring with many keys that Nicole kept on a hook in her kitchen disappeared between June 5 and June 6, 1994 (see Keys).
Allen, MarcusFriend of O.J. Simpson and Al Cowlings. The three black men were known to socialized together in the company of white women throughout the 80s. Allen eventually married his blond girlfriend at O.J.s house. Before they met in 1988, Allen would often go out with O.J. and Nicole. Kathleen Bells casual mention of Allen to Mark Fuhrman in 1986 is what triggered his enraged diatribe about his practice of harassing mixed couples and his fantasies of committing genocide.
Ameli, Dr. JenniferClinical psychologist specializing in intimate relationships and drug abuse. Both Nicole and Ron Goldman were under her care at the time of their deaths. Amelis office was broken into and bugged, files were stolen and she was subjected to anonymous threats to keep her mouth shut about her knowledge of the murder victims. All she could say about one man who approached her from behind and threatened her was that he was tall.
Baden, Dr. MichaelOne of the worlds leading forensic pathologists. He offered his services to the prosecution as well as the defense. The prosecution turned him down. Hired by the defense for his technical ability as well as his pristine reputation for integrity, he was ridiculed by the vast majority of media commentators for saying that Goldman could have stayed on his feet for as long as five or ten minutes after his throat was slit. Either estimate makes it impossible for O.J. to have committed the crime.
Bailey, F. LeeFamous defense attorney and polygraph expert. Two days after the murders, he stopped O.J. from completing a polygraph test as soon as he discovered he was taking one. The reason he gave was the same one Mark Fuhrman used for waiting over a year to take his: To get a reliable reading the person being tested has to be as stress-free as possible. During Simpsons criminal trial, Bailey maneuvered Fuhrman into committing perjury under cross-examination by asking him if hed used the n-word or referred to any black person by that name in the past ten years. But he ruled out Fuhrman as a murder suspect because he was convinced that Fuhrman found the bloody right-hand glove at Bundy after he was called in on the case, and planted it at Rockingham to stay involved in the case.
Baker, PhillipAttorney for O.J. Simpson. His questioning of Denise Brown uncovered a vital link between her, Ron Shipp and Faye Resnick, whom she said she didnt know. He asked her if Shipp and Resnick were passengers in her car when she was stopped in LA for drunk driving. Her Attorney, John Kelley, told her not to answer; leaving a strong impression that any answer she gave would be incriminating. The only incriminating truthful answer she could have given would have been, yes; her only incriminating false answer would have been, no. The only logical conclusion being, she lied about her relationship with Faye Resnick and Ron Shipp, the most damaging witness against Simpson other than Mark Fuhrman and herself.
Baker, RobertO.J.s lead attorney in the civil trial, father of Phillip Baker. Under state legislation fashioned specifically for the Simpson case, Baker was forced to contend with devastating hearsay evidence purported to have been said or written by Nicole. Under the rulings of the presiding judge, he was not allowed to call Mark Fuhrman or to suggest that Fuhrman had anything to do with planting evidence. He was able to show how and why photos of O.J. Simpson wearing shoes identified as the killers could have been faked. But, by all published accounts, he showed no enthusiasm for his own argument and some writers claimed he was angry with O.J. for lying to him. Transcripts do show tension between Baker and O.J. when O.J. insisted on answering questions against his attorneys advice. However, that advice made sense only if one assumed that he would hurt himself by answering them. He didnt.
Barbiari, PaulaO.J. Simpsons former girlfriend. On the morning of June 12, 1994, Barbiari left a message on Simpsons answering machine telling him that their relationship was over. The prosecution argued that her message set off a slow-burning fuse in Simpson, which exploded that night in the rage killing of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. They offered no proof of that scenario, their only evidence being the mood some witnesses said he was in at his daughters dance recital before the killing. However, a video taken without the knowledge of O.J. or any of those witnesses, showed the opposite of what they said.
Baur, MariaFormer housekeeper for O.J. and Nicole. Her husband Rolf was Nicoles cousin, brought over from Germany by O.J. and Nicole. During her four years with Nicole and O.J. at Rockingham from 1980 to 1984, she witnessed no displays of temper by O.J., saw no bruises on Nicole and testified that her family didnt believe her stories of O.J.s physical abuse. She saw no evidence of it.
Baur, RolfFormer groundskeeper for O.J. and Nicole. He lived with the Browns from the time he was 9-years-old. He worked with his wife at Rockingham for 3 years without seeing evidence that O.J. abused Nicole. He did tell investigators of seeing a picture "long before" that showed her "beaten up." He said that it was taken by her father. He didnt say who beat her up, if anyone (see Brown, Denise) and Nicole never mentioned it to him, his wife, the police or her divorce lawyer.
Bell, KathleenWitness for the defense. She met Fuhrman at a Marine recruiting station in Redondo Beach in the summer of 86. He was wearing a sweatsuit. Noting how tall he was, she wanted to fix him up with her girlfriend, Andrea Terry, who was 6 tall. She told Fuhrman that her friend liked men who fit his general description. Terry was white, but color was not important to Bell, who gave Marcus Allen as an example (could be where he got the idea that he might be able to impersonate O.J.) of the kind of man she was talking about.
Horrified at his violent, racist reaction, she avoided him and the places she saw his pea-green and white International Harvester Scout. When she was visiting Hennesseys Tavern in Redondo Beach with Andrea Terry, she saw Fuhrman at a table with another woman. Bell pointed him out to Terry as the reason she wanted to leave.
After saying that he did not recall meeting Bell, Fuhrman claimed that she sought him out at Hennesseys after the alleged incident at the recruiting station, to introduce Terry to him. He then pointed out the logical inconsistency in his version of events between the two stories. Marcia Clark used that argument as the basis for calling Bell a liar, until the language and content of the McKinny tapes lent credibility to Bells version of what happened. Clark never apologized to Bell.
Berris, KennethChicago Policeman. He searched the room where O.J. was staying when he got the call from Detective Ron Phillips that his ex-wife had been murdered. O.J. almost certainly cut himself on purpose in that room to make it appear that he could not have left his blood at his home. Whether he actually did it by accident, as he claimed, as a panic reaction to details of the murder he wasnt supposed to be told, or as a calculated attempt to hide evidence of his guilt, there is no doubt that he cut himself in Chicago. But when prosecutors learned that the blood drops on O.J.s driveway came from a superficial cut (see Chapter 30: Blood Trails), and no one could testify to seeing a cut of any kind on his hand before he left, they had a problem. They were forced to argue that O.J. did not cut himself in Chicago at all. Though the bedding where the blood appeared in photos was shipped back to LA, the prosecution still used Berris testimony that he saw a ballpoint pen on the bed, to suggest that the red stain was red ink.
Blasier, RobertDNA expert, defense attorney for O.J. Simpson in his criminal and civil trial. Coached Johnnie Cochran and Bob Shapiro on questions related to blood and fiber evidence. He was first to propose the theory that Mark Fuhrman found the bloody glove on Bundy and planted it on Rockingham.
Blasini, WilliamGeneral manager of vehicle purchasing for a large, self-service automobile recycling center. On Tuesday, June 21, he visited Virtels garage where O.J.s Bronco was taken on June 13. He went there as part of his routine practice of buying cars from police auctions and impounds. Hed been involved in the business for 15 years and had seen hundreds of vehicles with bloodstains inside of them. He had heard about the killings and expected to see a great deal of blood on the seats, doors, instrument panel, console and carpet. He looked for blood. Andrew Adlen, the competing buyer who was with him, also looked for blood. They discussed the absence of blood. They noticed that a section of the carpet had been cut out, but they saw no blood anywhere.
Two other people, a man who stole some receipts and a police officer who investigated the theft, also reported that they saw no blood when they were inside of the vehicle. When Marcia Clark confronted them with photos supposedly taken on the 14th of June and the 1st of August with clear indications of blood on the door, the instrument panel and the console, they conceded that they might not have noticed it. The photos did not change Blasinis mind.
Bodziak, WilliamFBI footwear expert. Of all the shoes in the FBIs extensive library, the ones that left their clear, size-12 imprint on the murder scene at Bundy were not among them. Agent Bodziak took weeks to track down the imprint and identify it as a Silga sole pattern used on rare and expensive Italian dressy/casual shoes (or boots) called Bruno Magli Lorenzos. They had soft-leather, high-quarter tops and distinctive rubber treads. Bodziak discovered that they were sold in the United States exclusively though Bloomingdales in 1991 and 92.
Bodziak was one of two FBI experts called by the prosecution to rebut the testimony of defense expert Henry Lee that a less distinct set of imprints with simple, parallel lines might also be shoeprintsthe shoeprints of a smaller man with a smaller foot. When you hear that only one set of bloody shoeprints was discovered at the crime scene, you are listing to the opinions of William Bodziak (shoe expert) and Douglas Deedrick (fiber expert). Bodziak consulted his library on the second set of possible shoeprints. When he found no match, he did no further research before concluding that there were no shoes in the world that matched. He went so far as to say that Lee had misidentified a concrete impression as a surface imprint.
Bowers, JarvisAn African-American choke hold victim of Mark Fuhrman. In 1984, when Fuhrmans medical retirement claim was denied, his superiors assigned him to a predominately white area. There, he stopped Bowers for jaywalking, put him in a coke hold and threatened to kill him. This story was not uncovered by any of the official investigators who were supposed to be looking for evidence of Fuhrmans abuse of power even though Bowers made an official complaint. Jeffrey Toobin reported it in his best-selling anti-O.J. book, The Run of His Life. His wife, who knew Bowers personally and professionally, told the story to him.
Brockbank, SusanLAPD criminalist. She testified that a patch of carpet the criminalist cut from the Bronco to test for blood, was stored inside of the same battered, cardboard box as all the evidence its fibers was found on. That includes the carpet fibers found on the gloves, the knit cap and Ron Goldmans shirt.
Brown, DeniseOlder sister of Nicole Brown Simpson. She was with Nicoles party at the Mezzaluna restaurant where her mothers glasses disappeared shortly before the murders. Of the four adults living in her parents home when police called there at 6:20 a.m. to inform the family that Nicole was dead, Denise was the one who reacted first when her father answered the phone and got the horrible new. For some unexplained reason, she was up and listening in on another extension. She was the one who screamed, "O.J. did it!" the instant her father got the news. No one thought to ask her why she behaved as though she were expecting an important call before she learned of her sisters death.
According to Joe Bosco, she was the only person who reported seeing O.J. wearing Bruno Magli Lorenzos.
She cashed in big on her sisters murder by accusing O.J. of a pattern of abuse against Nicole typical of men who have gone on to kill their wives or ex-wives. The textbook case of spouse-abuse she presented to authorities was the one Ron Shipp taught in the police academy, the one he taught Nicole and the one Faye Resnick wrote about in her best-selling books. The similarities in the tone and language of their reports are striking. They are supported mostly by Nicoles initial statement to police about the 89 incident, when she was drunk, angry, and under the false impression that O.J. had given an expensive set of earrings to another woman. They contrast strikingly with reports of others who knew them well and had nothing to gain by what they said. Those people said that Nicole was the one who did the hitting.
The only photos purporting to show Nicole battered by O.J., other than the ones taken by Officer Edwards on the 1st of January, 1989, is the one Denise said she took and her cousin Rolph Baur said that her father took. The prosecution tried to imply that it was what Nicole really looked like as a result of being beaten by O.J. in 1989, but the photographic paper showed that it couldnt have been taken later than 1979. In this one, Nicole appeared to have been battered badly enough to require hospitalization and reconstructive surgery. O.J. said that she was wearing makeup for a part in a movie. The date on the photographic paper corresponded to the date of the movie. Still, no one questioned how it ended up with "Nicoles" month-old will in a safe deposit box supposedly secured by Nicole shortly before her death
Brown, DominiqueDenises younger sister. She lived with Denise in New York before O.J. married Nicole and put her through college. Dominique had no stories to tell of Nicole being threatened or abused by O.J. However, before 1996, she was the only person other than Denise who reported having seen O.J. in Bruno Magli shoes. According to Tom Lange and Phil Vannatters book, Evidence Dismissed, she "made the right choice" by picking a pair of low-quarter Bruno Maglis that she said she saw him wear the Easter before the murders. Though it was reported in the book that she made the right choice (see Bruno Magli Lorenzos), that report was in error. She did not point to Bruno Magli Lorenzos. She did, however, recognize the Bruno Magli logo and took off one of her shoes to show Det. Lange that she was wearing a pair of Bruno Maglis that Nicole had purchased for herself in New York.
Brown, JudithaNicoles mother, a German national who became an American citizen when she married Louis Brown. Her stories of Nicole living in fear of O.J. first surfaced after the murdersand after the family was advised that they had one year from the date of Nicoles death to sue O.J. Simpson for wrongful death. She forgot exculpatory information about O.J.s relationship with Nicole, and remembered incriminating facts incompletely or out of context. Her stories changed to conform to those told by her oldest daughter, the police, the prosecutors and the media. By the time the civil case came around, she had changed completely from a mother who doubted that her former son-in-law was guilty, despite the evidence against him, to one who had been certain of his guilt from the start.
In regard to Nicoles credibility, she once said, "Nicole could convince anyone of anything." Her own credibility was damaged beyond hope of repair when Robert Baker caught her gently in a significant contradiction. She told the jury that O.J. did not deny, being involved in Nicoles death when she asked him if he had anything to do with it. She quoted him as saying, "I loved your daughter," and nothing more. But in a taped statement she made in her first television interview she quoted him as saying, "No, I loved your daughter."
Brown, LouisNicoles Father. He accepted everything O.J. gave him, which included his successful business and wealthy life-style, without complaint about the older mans treatment of his daughter. He accepted money from the public, complaining about the extra cost of taking care of Nicoles children without acknowledging the fact that O.J., while he was in jail, was sending him $10,000 a month. He tried to sell pictures of Nicole in the nude and rights to her alleged diary. He referred to her children, in their presence, as "niggers." He answered the phone when police called to inform the family of Nicoles violent death.
The will that Nicole supposedly left in a safe deposit box (no one at the bank ever testified to seeing and talking to her in person about the box) left nearly three-quarters of a million dollars to her father. Louis Brown also authenticated the diary Nicole supposedly wrote that paints a picture of O.J. as the Devil himself and helped win the plaintiffs a multi-million dollar wrongful death settlement.
Brown, TanyaNicoles youngest sister. Although convinced of O.J.s guilt, Tanya did not describe O.J. in the menacing way her mother or her older sister did. She called him, "A wonderful guy."
Buffalo Bills ReportThe newsletter for the Buffalo Bills football team fan club. E. J. Flammer was working for the Buffalo Bills Report when he took the 30 photos showing O.J. in the murderers shoes. One reason Dan Abrams was so impressed with Flammers photos, was the assertion of Bills PR director Denny Lynch that one was printed in the Report ten months before the murders. No subscriber to the newsletter ever came forward with his or her own copy of it. That never became an issue for the media, whose purchase of them for an undisclosed, amount of money, gave them a proprietary interest in promoting their authenticity.
The photos were admitted into evidence only after the photo expert for the defense made fundamental errors in fraud-detection that could easily be rebutted. That, in turn, caused the photos to come in so late that it was impossible for the defense to mount a counter-attack as dramatic as the introduction of the photos. Still, Bob and Phillip Baker managed to show that all of the requirements for fake photos were met in the professional qualifications and motivations of the people involved. The plaintiffs did not produce a single witness other than Flammer and Scull to testify to having seen any of them before the murders.
Cale, CharlesThe spokesman for a group of O.J.s Rockingham neighbors who wanted him out of the neighborhood. He testified in the criminal trial that he was walking his dog past the Rockingham estate during the time Marcia Clark said it was missing. He said under direct that he had a clear view of Rockingham and did not see the Bronco. He said under cross that he also had a clear view of Ashford where Katos Nissan was parked. He said that he didnt see the Nissan, either. He was not prosecuted for perjury or called as a witness in the civil trial.
California State Court of AppealsWhen Laura Hart McKinnys tapes of Mark Fuhrman proved that he lied under oath, O.J.s defense asked Judge Ito to instruct the jury as to why the detective was not called back to testify. Ito agreed with the defense and the prosecution appealed his decision. The Appeals Court agreed with the prosecution and issued the judge a public rebuke. The higher court was so concerned about Fuhrmans rights in this regard that it issued a special order for Ito not to tell the jury why he was dismissed prematurely. By affirming Mark Fuhrmans right against self-incrimination for perjury, the Court of Appeals allowed to stand, his incriminating testimony against Simpson. Most of that testimony and the fruit of his efforts regarding that testimony still stands in the popular culture as "proof of O.J.s guilt."
Cantor, BrettNightclub owner, promoter, West LA murder victim. Nicole and Faye Resnick were frequent visitors to his Dragonfly club. Ron Goldman worked for him briefly and also partied at the Dragonfly with Nicole and Faye. Someone killed him at home in a manner similar to Ron, with multiple stabbing and slashing wounds. Like Nicole, he was nearly decapitated.
These similarities could be written off as meaningless coincidence except for the fact that they fit a requirement for a military-style assassination. Its not likely that anyone trained in military operations would carry out a life or death mission without detailed planning that included extensive intelligence gathering, dry runs, and a "dress rehearsal."
The bloody assault on Cantor occurred five months before a man who was following Nicole and keeping a detailed log of her daily activities got arrested for steeling Paula Barbiaris white sports utility vehicle (see Wasz, William). Because of his fathers standing as a well-known agent in the entertainment business, the Robbery/Homicide Division was called in to investigate. His murder was never solved. It also provided a preview of the legal apparatus that would be called into action in any high-profile murder in Brentwood.
CasioA character in Shakespeares Othello. Iago, who was jealous of Casio for passing him over as General Othellos second in command, set him up to make Othello believe that he was having an affair with Othellos wife, Desdemona. Iago contrived to have him and Desdemona murdered. The attack on Casio was botched and he survived (see Rodrigo).
Chain of custodyA procedure for safeguarding the integrity of evidence from collection to testing. American military servicemen in Vietnam were given urine tests to determine if they were using illegal drugs. The troops who were taking those drugs regularly beat the test by substituting drug-free samples from other servicemen for their own. By 1975 when Mark Fuhrman served aboard ship in Vietnam as a military policeman, this simple substitution trick was well known to military police in all branches of the service. Blood evidence in the O.J. Simpson case was subject to the same false identification for the same reason: there was no procedure in place to insure that the samples being tested had an unbroken connection to the source.
Clark, MarciaDeputy DA for Los Angeles County. The week before the murders, she headed a department of her own, but took a substantial cut in pay and power to work for Bill Hodgman of the Major Crimes Unit of the LA County DAs Office. Like its elite Robbery/Homicide counterpart in the LAPD, the Major Crimes Unit of the LADA Office was where all high-profile cases in Los Angeles ended up. Clark had a reputation for bending over backwards to help police and to prosecute men accused of spouse-abuse. She was particularly well known for helping police clean up illegal searches, taking calls at any time or any place to assist a detective in need of remedial action.
The DAs office had many deputy DAs who would not have approached the case against O.J. with her single-minded interest in equating a "search for truth" with her search for evidence of his guilt. None of them belonged to the Major Crimes Unit. It would have been easy for a detective to insure that Marcia Clark would be called in on the case at the very beginning, and that a like-minded team would be assembled around her. He needed only to understand the system and to bend a few rules on search and seizure.
CocaineThe illegal drug thought by many to be the cause of the South Bundy murders. At one time or another, O.J., Nicole, Denise, Faye Resnick, Ron Goldman, Ron Shipp and Keith Zlomawitz were all subjects of police investigations involving cocaine. William Wasz, the man who stole Paula Barbiaris car and made a detailed log of Nicoles daily activities, was a crack addict. Mark Fuhrman worked in a gang/narcotics unit from 1885-87 where he made numerous arrests for crimes involving cocaine, and may have had O.J. under surveillance for drug trafficking in 85. Michelle Kestler, head of the LAPDs Scientific Investigation Division (SID) had a background in illegal drugs, including cocaine. She set up the lab security procedures primarily to guard against the theft of narcotics. Her only safeguard against evidence tampering by police was a standard lock on an ordinary door and a limited number of authorized keys.
Aspects of the murders consistent with a drug hit were seized upon by the defense as evidence that drug lords committed the murders. Their investigation of Faye Resnick focused on her possible connection to vicious drug dealers. No attempts were made to link her to Mark Fuhrman or Brad Roberts. No attempt was made to determine if there was a direct link between Kestler and Fuhrman or Fuhrman and Yamauchi (see Yamauchi), the lab technician who prepared the blood samples for analysis by outside laboratories.
Cochran, Johnnie L. Jr.O.J.s lead defense attorney, Court TV talk show host, and first cousin of Ron Shipp. The record is clear that he acted not only brilliantly but also honorably in defense of O.J. Simpson. The idea that he performed cynically, rests on the belief that he knew O.J. was guilty, and used the charge of racism as an emotional smokescreen to hide the truth (see Race Card).
Cochran was excoriated by some Jewish commentators and organizations for his equation of Mark Fuhrman to the ambitious Adolph Hitler before the Jewish Holocaust. He was further criticized for asking the "black jury" to "send a message" that "genocidal racists" like Fuhrman would not be tolerated in positions of power in America. There is, however, evidence that Fuhrman did pattern himself after Hitler, and did identify with the notion of Aryan superiority and racial purity. There is evidence that Nicoles "German blood" had much to do with his obsession with the father of her children. There is evidence that Fuhrman did study Hitlers principles of mass mind control, and did aspire to a position of political influence in America.
In his book, Journey to Justice, Cochran apologized for his remarks.
Colby, CarlNeighbor of Nicole when she lived on Gretna Green in 1993. Called as a stalking witness against O.J., Colby revealed under cross-examination that he didnt recognize O.J. Simpson when he saw him around Nicoles house. He called 911 because the man he saw was black. Colby didnt think a black man belonged in the neighborhood. He found out that the man was O.J. when Nicole told him that he was there because she was worried about someone following her (see Wasz, William), and asked O.J., among others, to look out for her and the kids.
Coleman, LucienneDeputy DA, former friend of Marcia Clark. She believed that O.J.s defense team was making false charges of racism and evidence planting against Mark Fuhrman until she checked it out. She, and two other deputy DAs, found that he openly admired the ideas and symbols of Nazi Germany. Coleman and the other deputy DAs investigating Fuhrman learned from several officers that his statements to them a few years before the murders suggested that hed had an intimate relationship with Nicole. At the very least, his knowledge of her breast implant surgery showed a special interest in her that predated her death, and, by implication, a special interest in O.J. Simpson. When she reported her findings to Marcia Clark and her boss Bill Hodgman, Clark screamed at her and kicked her out of the office. Hodgman "did not recall" the incident.
Cowlings, Allen C.O.J. Simpsons best friend and a trusted friend of Nicole. He drove O.J. in the so-called "low-speed chase," pleading with him not to take his own life. His candid answers to police, prosecutors, judges and juries, which didnt always help O.J., made him a credible witness.
He took Nicole to St. Johns Hospital in Santa Monica on the evening of the 89 incident when she complained of a headache. Seeing the bruise on her head, which had risen to a large bump, he was worried that she might have suffered a concussion. He and O.J. had been friends since childhood, and he had never known O.J. to do what Nicole said he did. However, the bump on her head, the dirt on her pants, her trip to the police station, her complaint of a headache and her angry insistence that she was "going to get O.J. for what he did" to her, convinced him that O.J. must have hit her.
It angered him, and he advised her "to go all the way." He did not know that Nicole had gone after Michelle in a jealous rage after confronting O.J. with what she thought was proof of his infidelity. Therefore, it could not have occurred to him that "what O.J. did to her," how he had hurt her and what she was so angry about, was something other than him hitting her. The doctor who examined her, stitched no cut or torn skin, applied no dressings, prescribed no medication. Nicole was left with no scars or injuries Cowlings saw no blood, no black eye, no cut lip. He saw no marks on her body that were inconsistent with O.J.s story of a rough, angry wrestling match between a strong, determined woman and a bigger, stronger man.
Darden ChristopherDeputy DA. He was seen by many African-Americans as a token chosen because of his color to diffuse the issue of racial prejudice in the prosecutions handling of the case. Darden, whose job it had been for awhile to prosecute bad cops, was extremely reluctant to accept any evidence that pointed to race as a motive for police misconduct. As a prosecutor in the case against O.J. Simpson he accepted all of the charges of spouse-abuse made against him with little or no evidence. He viciously attacked Rosa Lopez and Robert Heidstra with questions designed only to call attention to their limited education and lower socio-economic status. For his success in taking advantage of their fear of him and their poor command of the language, he was rewarded by expert commentator opinion that he "discredited" Rosa Lopez and got Robert Heidstra to admit he saw "a white Bronco" driving away from Bundy.
The fact that Ms. Lopez held her own against Darden when she got a competent interpreter, did not make a big impression with the press. The fact that Heidstra did not say he saw a white Bronco, and the vehicle he did see was heading away from O.J.s Rockingham estate, was similarly played down or ignored. What did get attention was Dardens attempt to get Heidstra to say he heard "a black man" arguing with a younger man at the crime scene and his plea to keep Fuhrmans use of the n-word away from the jurors. He is best remembered for his disastrous glove demonstration, which allowed Johnnie Cochran to argue, "If it doesnt fit, you must acquit."
Deedrick, DouglasFBI hair and fiber expert. Testified that hair in the knit cap found at the murder scene and in both bloody gloves was consistent with O.J. Simpsons. His most damaging testimony, however, concerned parallel line imprints on the envelope on Bundy that defense expert Henry Lee identified as being a possible shoeprint. According to Deedrick, the pattern of lines in question were most likely left by Ron Goldmans trousers. He was the second FBI agent (see Bodziak, William) to claim that Dr. Lee erred in seeing possible evidence of two people involved in the killing.
DesdemonaThe wife falsely accused of infidelity in Shakespeares play, Othello. As part of the setup to make Othello believe that she was having an affair with Casio, Iago planted the idea in Othellos mind that he had good reason to be jealous. To convince him, he planted subtle suggestions that innocent behavior on the part of Casio and Desdemona was actually guilty behavior. To cap it off, Iago used a duplicate of a distinctive handkerchief Othello had given to Desdemona and she had lost, to give to Casio. He then maneuvered Othello into secretly observing Casio with the handkerchief. The sight was so upsetting to Othello that it triggered an epileptic seizure. But he still wasnt convinced until Iago persuaded him to ask Desdemona if she still had handkerchief, knowing that she would lie about it to protect herself from Othellos anger. She did. Her lie is what sealed her doom, by convincing Othello that she was a liar and Iago must have been telling the truth.
Dietz, ParkFBI profiler and forensic psychiatrist. Using only the prosecutions idea of evidence that O.J. beat Nicole, Dietz lent the credibility of his association with the FBI as well as Harvard and Johns Hopkins, to characterize Simpson as a spouse-abuser. He said that O.J. would have continued to abuse Nicole with no reliable data that he ever did. Even at that, he could not find a pattern of escalation that matched the profile of a would-be killer. His expert testimony was allowed despite the fact that he never examined Simpson himself (see Walker, Dr. Lenore).
Douroux, BernieDriver of the truck that towed O.J.s Bronco to the impound garage (see Viertels). By the time he hooked up the Bronco, the sun was up and the news was out that the Bronco might have been involved in a bloody homicide. He had a clear view of the vehicles interior under the best possible lighting conditions. He testified that he saw now blood in the Bronco.
Dream Evidence(See Ron Shipp). In Shakespeares play, Othello, the villain, Iago, tells the tittle character of his wifes infidelity by way of a dream Casio supposedly divulged to him while he was asleep.
Dunne, DominickStaff writer for Vanity Fair magazine. He wrote a best-selling book in the 80s about a murder in Connecticut, which was tied to the Kennedy family. As an author commissioned to write a book about the Brentwood murders, he was granted a permanent seat in Judge Itos courtroom. A frequent talk show guest, his opinions, together with fellow permanent seat-holder, Jeffrey Toobin, and talk-show host, Geraldo Revera, form a large body of what most people believe about O.J. Simpson. Dunne sat with the Goldmans during the criminal trial and became friends with Mark Fuhrman, whose second book is about the murder in Connecticut that made Dunne a best-selling writer. He called Fuhrmans first book about the murder that forever linked Fuhrmans name to O.J. Simpsons downfall, "...wonderful."
EDTAThe chemical used in purple-top test tubes to keep blood from clotting. When Nurse Thano Peratis drew O.J. Simpsons blood directly from his body, he put it in a purple-top test tube and shook it up to allow the EDTA blood preservative coating the sides to mix with the blood. O.J.s defense team reasoned that a simple, straightforward way of determining whether or not his blood was planted in incriminating places, was to see if blood collected in those places on untreated cloth swatches contained EDTA.
The prosecutors leaped to accept the challenge, announcing that they were confident no EDTA would be found. Deputy DA Rockney Harmon was on loan to the LA County prosecutors from Alameda for his expertise in DNA. He wrote to Agent Roger Martz of the FBI crime lab requesting that he test samples of evidence "to refute defense charges" that blood from Nicoles reference vial as well as O.J.s had been planted. They refused to send Martz samples of the Bundy blood drops identified as O.J.s because they said they didnt have enough to go around. When the results came back positive from the samples they did send, they refused to accept them or call experts to support their reasons for not accepting them. They argued, instead, that it would take too much time and prove nothing.
The defense then called Martz as well as its own expert witness, Dr. Fredric Reiders, the worlds leading expert on EDTA. Martz confirmed the presence of EDTA but said that the amount could have occurred naturally in O.J.s blood. Reiders said that anyone with that amount of EDTA in his blood would bleed to death from a minor cut because the blood would not clog. Since O.J. had flown all the way to Chicago with a minor cut, and all the way back to LA with a major one, the blood in question could not have come directly from his body if Reiders was correct.
Edwards, JohnOne of two LAPD officers who responded to the infamous 911 call at Rockingham in 1989 (see Abudrahn, Michelle and Gilbert, Sharyn). Edwards and his partner, rookie trainee Patricia Milewski, were patrolling near the Simpson estate when they got a call from emergency operator Sharyn Gilbert. Gilbert told the officers that she had heard screams on an open line and that a woman was being beaten. She did not tell them that the woman being beaten had made the call or that only one woman was involved. Gilbert and Edwards assumed these things, which seemed apparent from the information they had to work with. Edwards and Milewski then heard something over their radio about "...a black male," not knowing that an operator next to Gilbert was describing another emergency.
The officers hurried to 360 N. Rockingham under the assumption that a woman being physically assaulted by a black man had somehow managed to call 911, and they were going to her rescue.
The patrol car went past the Rockingham gate and pulled into the drive on Ashford. Only after Edwards told the maid on the intercom what he thought was going on, did Nicole emerge from the bushes and fall into his arms with a story to tell that matched his impression. He then saw O.J. Simpson, a black male, enraged and outraged that the police would want to treat his idea of a minor incident like a criminal act. Edwards saw a man who couldnt see anything wrong with beating his wife. He saw all the evidence of a battered wifeincluding a black eye that didnt show up on any of the photos he took of her face, and a one inch cut on her lip that didnt show up on the photos, didnt bleed, and left no scar.
Nicole had a bruise on the underside of her right arm. Though O.J. couldnt explain it, he took responsibility for it, assuming that it must have happened during their tussle. He was not present when Michelle went to the right, rear door of the police car and tried to pull Nicole out by her right arm. More than likely, that bruise, which Edwards did not report, happened then, in the excitement of the moment when Michelle applied more pressure to the arm than anyone realized.
A bruise on Nicoles collar was consistent with O.J.s story of grabbing her in a headlock and shoving her out of their bedroom. The imprint of someones fingers that Edwards said he saw on the side of Nicoles neck, was consistent with the slapping sound recorded off of Gilberts emergency line. The fact that it didnt show up in any photos or require any treatment was consistent with a blow that didnt have much power behind itlike the slap of a small woman. The story Nicole told of O.J. pulling her hair is more consistent with what a woman would do to another woman in a fightexcept for the story that Mark Fuhrman told in the McKinny tapes. In that incident, which supposedly happened in 1978, he boasted of grabbing a criminal suspects girlfriend by her hair and flinging her down a flight of stairs.
Entrenching ToolA spade-like tool with a short handle and sharp, folding blade used by soldiers as a spade or a pick to dig holes in the ground. It can also be used as a weapon in hand-to-hand combat. It was one of the many weapons falsely reported to have been found, with blood on it, around O.J. Simpsons home or his hotel in Chicago. The cumulative affect of such reports was to reinforce the idea that O.J. Simpson was a murderer, notwithstanding later demonstrations that the reports had no basis in fact. Reports not given the attention of the entrenching tool as a demonstrable error, have been repeated so often as true that few people have bothered to track down their source (see Blood Trail, Blue/Black Fibers).
EnvelopeThe envelope containing Juditha Browns prescription glasses. The known size of the envelope and its position next to Mark Fuhrmans shoe in the full-size photograph of him pointing to the bloody glove at Bundy makes it possible to calculate his shoe size precisely. Juditha Brown thought that she had left her glasses behind at Mezzalunas. They could just as easily have been stolen by someone at the table and put next to the curb outside where they could be found later as an excuse for Ron to show up "unexpectedly" at Bundy (see Brown, Denise).
FBIFederal Bureau of Investigation. Before the O.J. Simpson trial, almost everyone in the country saw the FBIs lab facilities and experts in charge as the worlds best at finding and analyzing the relevant facts. The mere invocation of FBI credentials was enough to create the universal expectation that the truth would be sought with the most sophisticated equipment and the highest standards of professional conduct anywhere in the world. The man most responsible for that reputation in the FBI lab was Dr. Henry Lee, who established and oversaw the polices and practices which made that universal perception a reality for many years.
During the O.J. Simpson criminal trial, the prosecution, in an official letter, called upon the FBI to prove that their evidence against the accused was precisely what it appeared to be. Despite all reason and all evidence to the contrary, that is what every expert representative of the FBI did in both trials and in a polygraph test taken by Mark Fuhrman at the behest of his publishers. In all, six FBI agents or former agents offered testimony against Simpson. A former polygraph expert for the FBI (see Minor, Paul) lent his credentials to the publishers of Mark Fuhrmans first book by testing Fuhrman without independent witnesses and declaring that he told the truth. Henry Lee and Fredric Whitehurst, the only experts associated with the FBI to offer testimony for the defense, were either restricted in their ability to examine evidence or prohibited from testifying.
Ferrell, MikeThe detective assigned to investigate Nicoles 89 battering complaint against O.J. Though Nicole declined to press charges against O.J., California law required the police to arrest the accused if the alleged victim appeared to be injured. If they had independent verification of the charge, they were required by law to bring charges of their own. Ferrell had three witnesses, two who said that there was no battery on the day of the incident, and all three who agreed the next day that it wasnt as bad as it had appeared. He had physical evidence that could have been read either way until you took a cold, hard looked at it both ways.
To show the city attorney that this was truly a case of a spouse-abusers latest assault, as opposed to one drunken fight that got out of hand, he asked other officers who had responded to previous 911 calls at Rockingham if they had seen anything like it. His only response came in Mark Fuhrmans letter describing his version of the 85 incident with O.J., Nicole, and the baseball bat. That was the basis upon which O.J. pled "No contest" to the complaint Nicole made against him on New Years Day 1989 but refused to bring charges the next day . There was no record of a 911 call made from Rockingham in 85, no statement by Nicole that she made one (she called Westec), and no other police officer, including Fuhrmans partner, told Ferrall a similar story.
Fenjves, PabloNeighbor of Nicole Brown Simpson. He heard a dogs "plaintive wail" at 10:15 or 10:20 on the night of the murders. Ignoring all evidence that the dog was silent until 15-20 minutes later, Marcia Clark used Fenjves estimate of the time he heard the dog, based on his impression of when a news program began and ended, to mark when the killings at Bundy began. Without that extra time, O.J. could not have committed the crime. He could not have left all of the evidence that was left at Rockingham, cleaned up or disposed of all the evidence that wasnt found anywhere, and been clean, dressed and ready to go to the airport when he was seen by the limo driver at 10:54. The plaintiffs in the civil trial made up for the time problem by assuming the killing was over in seconds, that Kato Kaelins estimate of when he heard the thumps were off by five or ten minutes, and "someone" cleaned up after O.J. It worked. O.J. lost.
Ferrara, RachelFriend of Kato Kaelin. Kaelin was talking to her on the telephone when he heard and felt three hard thumps no later than 10:45. Both Kaelin and Ferrara estimated that the thumps occurred ten or fifteen minutes after they checked the time at 10:30. Ferrara estimated that the call ended at 10:50. If she was correct, it would have been impossible for O.J. to have committed the crime.
Fischman, Cora and RonClose friends of O.J. and Nicole. Cora was Nicoles jogging partner and confidante. She attended the childrens dance recital with Nicole, Denise, Dominique, O.J. and her husband Ron. She reported nothing strange in O.J.s behavior at the recital. She recalled (incorrectly) that he was wearing loafers without socks. She talked her husband into taking a picture of O.J. with Sydney. That picture, which Denise did not learn about until the trial, is the only thing that stands in the way of the shoes he wore to the recital being falsely, but convincingly identified as Bruno Magli Lorenzos. They fit the general description of the killers Lorenzos, but Ron Fischmans picture proved that they were a different brand.
The police, the FBI and the prosecutors assumed that O.J. left the clear imprints of "his" Bruno Maglis in blood because he wasnt thinking about them. Nevertheless, the killer had to be thinking about the shoes he wore to the recital to come so close to what they looked like. O.J. had no way of knowing whether the photo Ron Fischman took of him three hours before the killing would include the shoes. In any case, he had no reason to take them off and put on a pair that might look the same to eyewitnesses like Cora and Denise.
On the weekend before Nicole was murdered, Cora was with her when Nicole discovered that two identical keys to her house and gate were missing. Cora could not remember whether Nicole kept one key or two on a ring attached to a chain on her gate when they went running. But she did recall Nicole saying that she thought O.J. had them, then changing her mind and deciding that Faye had them. The keys the maid said were missing around that time were on a ring with many keys (see Keys).
Flammer, E. J.Freelance photographer. He was one of two 20-year-old photographers (see Scull, Harry) who claimed to have taken photos of O.J. Simpson wearing Bruno Magli Lorenzos at a Bills/Dolphins game on September 26, 1993. Both men hired the same agent to sell their photos to the media (see McCelroy, Rob). E.J. Flammer came forward with his photos in the last week of December 1996, after the defenses only photo expert made errors that proved he didnt know how the photos were faked.
Flammer, EdThe Father of E. J. He arranged for his son to take the 93 photos as part of a special celebration he organized for O.J. He was one of the five men in the group photo, which showed O.J. wearing the Bruno Maglis. Two of the remaining four were close friends of his. The other two were the public relations director and assistant director for the Buffalo Bills (see Lynch, Denny and Munson, Bill), the only people with the resources to insure that no other photos where taken that day of O.J.s shoes.
Fuhrman, MarkFirst detective on the Bundy murder scene, responsible for making Rockingham a murder scene as well. His negative influence on O.J. Simpsons life went back to a minor intrusion in the last quarter of 1985, that he turned into a "pattern of abuse" in the first month of 1989. With only three years of experience as a homicide detective and being off call for that night, he was, nevertheless, the first one called by his boss Ron Phillips who misrepresented himself in the criminal trial as being Fuhrmans partner. Fuhrmans real partner was Brad Roberts, who had less experience as a homicide detective than Fuhrman did. Between them, they found, highlighted, or interpreted every scrap of evidence linking Simpson to the Bundy crime scene (note: the blue/black fibers said by Marcia Clark to have come from a blue/black sweatsuit, do not link O.J. to the murder scene). If O.J. didnt murder the people he was accused of murdering, Fuhrman and Roberts, with only two or three other active plotters, were the only ones who could have.
Fujisaki, HiroshiThe judge in the civil case. He ruled consistently in favor of the plaintiffs. He allowed hearsay evidence attributed to Nicole by way of a phone call and written documents to be presented against O.J. without authentication that they were what they were reported to be. He allowed the Flammer photographs to be presented late in the case as evidence that O.J. wore the Bruno Magli Lorenzos during a football game on October 26, 1993 without giving the defense adequate time to prepare an aggressive defense. He denied the defense the opportunity to question Mark Fuhrman or to argue that he had anything to do with the evidence against Simpson. He denied the defense the opportunity to challenge Faye Resnicks drug habit, and therefore her credibility. He denied them the opportunity to argue that O.J. was framed.
Fung, DennisLAPD criminalist. He supervised the collection of evidence at Bundy and Rockingham beginning with Rockingham. He got there at 7:00 a.m. when it was light enough to see the blood drops on the driveway but not light enough to see their direction. That question was answered for him immediately by Mark Fuhrman and his partner Brad Roberts who told the cop by the gate and everyone entering the property to watch out for the blood drops going up the driveway.
When Roberts, began to lay down markers for the location of O.J.s blood drops, Fung stopped him. His poor record keeping made him vulnerable to attack on several fronts by defense attorney Barry Scheck in the vital areas of chain of custody, compromise and contamination of evidence. By not counting and recording the number of swatches used to collect blood samples, for instance, he made it possible for blood samples to be switched before testing. Samples collected by his subordinate, Andrea Mazzola, showed clear signs of being switched.
In the basement of O.J.s home, Fung ran across a dark sweatsuit. According to Marcia Clark, he looked it over, had it photographed in his hands and put it back because he said it obviously hadnt been worn that night. Clark said in an interview with WHYYs Terry Gross, that she was furious when she found out about what he did with the sweatsuit, suggesting that it was the one O.J. had worn to Bundy to kill Ron and Nicole. But the fibers on Rons shirt were blue/black, like Officer Riskes uniform, not gray/black like the one he was given a week before after a photo shoot (see Gardner, Leslie). No gray/black fibers where found on the bodies, in the Bronco or the Bentley. No blue/black fibers were found in the Bronco or the Bentley.
Garcetti, GilLA County Prosecutor. He came out early and often against O.J. Simpson, releasing damaging information to the press that often turned out to be misleading or wrong. He never pursued clues that pointed to anyone other than O.J. and attacked anyone who did. His appointment of Marcia Clark as one of the lead deputy prosecutors insured that O.J. and only O.J. would be investigated on the basis of evidence found our interpreted mostly by Mark Fuhrman and Brad Roberts. He took special pains to protect Fuhrman and Roberts from scrutiny and insured, through lack of vigorous investigation and prosecution, that Fuhrman would get the lightest possible punishment for perjurya suspended sentence and a $200 dollar fine.
Gardiner, Lesliewardrobe custodian for Playboy Videos. The weekend before the murders, she outfitted O.J. with a dark-colored sweatsuit for a video ad. It was shot, in part, on the driveway of his Rockingham estate. When the shoot was over, Gardner gave O.J. the sweatsuit (see Fung, Dennis).
During Marcia Clarks questioning of Allan Park and Kato Kaelin, she tried to leave the jury with the impression that O.J. was wearing a dark sweatsuit when he killed Ron and Nicole. She was convinced that O.J. had worn a dark blue sweatsuit to account for the blue/black fibers found on Ron Goldmans shirt and that he lied about not owning one. The photographs of O.J. wearing a dark sweatsuit gave the jury the image of him that she wanted them to have. She tried to leave the impression that Kato had seen him wearing it shortly before the murders when they went to McDonalds together, and Park saw him wearing it shortly after the murders. Park could say only that he saw a 6 black man in dark clothes entering the house from the direction of the driveway. Kaelin could say only that he wasnt sure, but he "believed" O.J. was wearing sweats. O.J. had been wearing sweats on the driveway one week earlier, the gray/black sweatsuit that Leslie Gardner gave him to wear for the Playboy ad.
Garvey, CandaceA close friend of Faye Resnick and Nicole. She testified that O.J. was in a dark, sinister mood at the Paul Revere Middle School dance recital shortly before the killings. She also said that Nicole told her that O.J. was going to kill her (see Fischman, Cora).
Gates, DarylFormer Los Angeles Police Commissioner. Gates was the Chief of Police during the time that Mark Fuhrman spoke nostalgically on the McKinney taps about the number of "niggers" who where killed by the infamous choke hold (sometimes spelled chokehold). The number of African-Americans killed by police on Gates watch did go up dramatically, largely because of the choke. He explained it by looking not at the cops who applied the choke hold, but at the black victims. He said that perhaps "the veins or arteries do not open up as fast as they do on normal people." Fuhrman admired him greatly.
The admiration was mutual. As one of Fuhrmans staunchest supporters, Gates attended a celebration in Fuhrmans honor and wrote a ringing endorsement of him as a police officer that appeared on the jacket of Fuhrmans first book (see Toobin, Jeffrey).
Gerchas, Mary AnnJewelry store owner. She said on the television news magazine Hard Copy, that she saw four men, two white and two Hispanic, running from the murder scene. But by the time Johnnie Cochran said in his opening statement what she was going to testify to, Marcia Clark had discovered that she used different names and different Social Security numbers and worshiped O.J. Simpson. Clark claimed to have witnesses willing to testify that Gerchas made up her story of the fleeing men. However, none of those witnesses were ever named and many people were convinced of the drug hit theory partly because of her story.
Gerdes, Dr. JohnDefense expert on DNA use and misuse. Gerdes, whose expertise in DNA typing had life-and-death application in the medical field, made no secret of his distrust of DNA analysis for forensic purposes. His said that the test used to identify O.J.s blood in various incriminating places was so sensitive that special equipment and strict procedures were required to prevent contamination. He studied the LAPD lab at Piper Tech in which blood samples were analyzed, and testified that the facility and the standards of practice in force were incapable of producing trustworthy results.
GIGOAn acronym for Garbage In Garbage Out. Zero ten times or ten billion time is still zero. GIGO is another way of saying the same thing about blood evidence in the O.J. Simpson case that was analyzed by Cellmark Labs, the California Justice Department labs and the FBI. All of it went through the LAPD serology lab first. There, missing blood from O.J.s reference vial, a broken chain of custody, unauthorized access to all of the evidence and other irregularities reduced the scientific certainty of the initial test results to zero. Reports on the socks, the gloves, etc., that narrowed the chances of whose blood it was to 1 in several billion left open the one question that would have given them the meaning they appeared to have: how did it get there?
Gilbert, SharynThe 911 operator who recorded the open-line call from Rockingham on New Years Day, 1989. No one said a word during the three taped minutes of the call. All she heard was three minutes of silence, which she noted as "unknown trouble," followed by a woman screaming, which she noted as such. Seconds later she heard someone being slapped, and a female grunting as though she had been slapped. The line went dead before she heard anything else. But shed heard enough to make her believe that a woman was being beaten, which is what she entered on her log and passed on to any police units in the area who could respond.
She did not know who had called. She did not know that two women were involved and, therefore, could not have imagined one of them striking the other. Between her interpretation of what was happening and the responding officers (see Edwards, John), an image was born of a man beating a woman and the victim calling 911 to report it. Thats the story Nicole overheard before she ran to the officer with her own story that matched his preconception but didnt match the marks on her face or body. Edwards "saw" the black eye and cut lip that matched her story and Gilberts, but he took Polaroid pictures that didnt.
Golden, Dr. IrwinDeputy LA Medical Examiner. His autopsy report on the bodies of Ron Goldman and Nicole Brown Simpson left room for interpretations that were helpful to the defense. For that reason alone, it was to the DAs advantage to discredit him if they wanted to successfully prosecute O.J. Simpson. They were helped by the defense when Bob Shapiro, coached by Dr. Michael Baden, embarrassed Golden during the preliminary hearing. He forced him to admit that he did not make potentially crucial tests involving Nicoles stomach contents and a German Stiletto like the one that O.J. purchased from Ross Cutlery.
Baden went out of his way to express his respect for Golden and to say that the errors he made were not as bad as the prosecution claimed they were. Mark Fuhrman used his report to show why he thought that the murder weapon was a Swiss Army knife. He did not comment on the bruise on Rons head noted by Golden that was consistent with the butt of a Swiss Army knife and the bruise on Nicoles head that was consistent with the butt of a German Stiletto.
Goldman, RonaldAspiring actor, waiter, murder victim. Different people portrayed his relationship with Nicole in different ways for different reasons. But, for the purpose of learning whether or not he was the victim of bad timing on his part or precise timing on the part of his killer, it is essential to know whether or not the killer could have anticipated his visit. With Faye Resnicks help, there would have been no guesswork involved.
Goldman, FredRon Goldmans father. He made not attempt to hide his certainty of O.J.s guilt from the beginning of the criminal trial. When he learned about Mark Fuhrmans nazi ideals he exploded in rageat O.J.s attorneys. Not once did he consider the possibility that a nazi may have murdered his son partly because he was Jewish. He accepted the n-word image of O.J. that Fuhrman was greatly responsible for painting. His problem with Fuhrman was that he might have given the jury a reason to acquit O.J. He never questioned Fuhrmans evidence against O.J., how he came by it, or why so much of it was associated with him in one way or another.
Goldman, KimberlyRon Goldmans sister. She attended every session of court during O.J.s criminal trial. By her presence and her outspoken belief in O.J.s guilt, she was able to frame the legal contest in terms of O.J.s legal rights vs. justice for the Goldmans.
Gonzales, DanialLAPD K-9 Corps officer, friend of Mark Fuhrman. He and his partner, Officer Aston, arrived on the murder scene before Vannatter and Lange. Gonzales filed a report at an unspecified time afterward claiming to have seen blood in the Bronco when Fuhrman asked him to move it. Bob Shapiros private investigator Bill Pavlic found his business card in Nicoles desk drawer. No explanation for that was ever uncovered.
Gretna GreenA residential street one block east of Bundy. Nicole moved to her Gretna Green residence after her separation from O.J. in 1992. She lived there until January of 1994 when she moved to Bundy. For a military-style kill to work (see Cantor, Brett) as indicated by the bruise on Nicoles skull and other features of the crime scene, the killer would have required detailed intelligence on where she live and what she did. This was the kind of information William Wasz recorded in his log when she was living on Gretna Green. To frame O.J. for a killing planned for January, the killer would also have required a vehicle that could be traced to O.J. The sports utility vehicle that Wasz stole from Paula Barbiari answered that requirement. Waszs arrest and Nicoles move to Bundy, no more than a minute away from her condo on Gretna Green would have altered the timing of the attack but not the overall plan.
Guarin, Josephine (Gigi)The housekeeper for O.J. who replaced Michelle. She testified that she took care of O.J.s clothes and never saw Bruno Magli Lorenzos in his closet or a dark blue sweatsuit like the one described by Marcia Clark. She also testified that there was no hint of anything sinister in O.J.s voice when she called a few hours before the murders to ask him if it was all right for her to spend the rest of the day with her family. She said that he was his normal self and described that as the up-beat personality most Americans were used to seeing on television. "O.J.," she said, "was O.J."
Heidstra, RobertDefense witness. While walking his dogs along his usual route at 10:35, on June 12, he heard Nicoles Akita begin to bark "hysterically." Five minutes later, as he walked though the alley behind Nicoles condo to protect his dogs from the Akita that seemed to be out on the street, he heard another dog begin to bark. That was followed immediately by a clear voice shouting, "Hey! Hey! Hey!" which Simpsons youngest daughter also heard. That was followed by an argument that lasted 20 seconds or so between two men, one of whom had a voice that Heidstra described as "deeper" and "older-sounding." He didnt recognize either voice, nor could he tell what they were saying to each other because the dogs were making too much noise.
When he was out of the alley five or six minutes later on the street that crossed Bundy, he saw a light-colored sports utility vehicle he couldnt identify by name. It came from the direction of the alley and turned south down Bundy in the opposite direction from O.J.s Rockingham estate.
As a detailer who sometimes did work for O.J.s next door neighbors, he was familiar with O.J.s white Bronco and recognized his voice from hearing him in person as well as in the media. Because of all the other evidence in the case, he was convinced that O.J. must have been the killer. That may have influenced how he recalled what he saw and heard on the 12th. According to Chris Darden, he told someone that the older, deeper voice sounded like a black man. He denied under oath that he ever told anyone that, and no one could get him to say he heard O.J. or saw a white Bronco even though other evidence convinced him of O.J.s guilt.
Harmon, Rockne (see EDTA).
Hitler, AdolphLeader of the German National Socialist Party; Nazis. Hitlers rise to power in the 1930s grew out of his understanding of group psychology, his success as a writer, his ability as a public speaker, and his willingness to kill without hesitation or remorse. He was guided by racist ideas and he advocated genocide as a means of solving racial problems. Johnnie Cochran was severely criticized for comparing Fuhrman to Hitler (see Lindner, Charles) in his closing statements even though Fuhrman did the same thing himself on the McKinney tapes. Media pundits accused Cochran of "jury nullification" for calling upon the jury to reject everything about the case that flowed from Fuhrmans involvement. However, a good argument can be made for the idea that Fuhrman studied Hitler and patterned himself after him. Hitlers "great lie," for examplehis observation that people were more likely to believe a big lie than a small oneis exactly what the killer would have had to understand and rely on for a successful frame-up that was far less than perfect. O.J. was framed. And the frame-up was far less than perfect.
Hodge, RoderickDefense witness, victim of Mark Fuhrmans harassment. He testified that Fuhrman took him into custody on a phony drug charge, subjected him to humiliation and said, "I told you I was going to get you, nigger." Without the McKinny tapes, testimony like his was all that the defense had to counter Fuhrmans denial of having used the n-word within the ten years prior to the Simpson murder trial. To discredit him, media pundits routinely alluded to drug charges made against him. They routinely failed to point out the fact that he was never convicted of those charges, or that they were made by Mark Fuhrman.
Hodgman, WilliamLead deputy DA in the O.J. Simpson case. Although Hodgman was the titular head of the prosecution team, not once did he demonstrate that he was in charge. For all practical purposes, he surrendered that role to Marcia Clark on day one of the murder investigation by deferring to her on all critical decisions about how to proceed. The unrealistic timeline destroyed by the defense was hers. The decision to portray Mark Fuhrman as a good cop unfairly accused of racism was also her decision. Hodgman allowed her to proceed in the preparation of the case on the assumption that everything Fuhrman told her on the 13th of June was true. When Hodgman became too ill to continue in his position of lead prosecutor and Marcia Clark took official charge of the case, no one noticed the difference.
Ito, Judge LancePresiding Judge in the O.J. Simpson murder case, husband of LAPD Captain Margaret York. Both the prosecution and the defense railed against his rulings at times, but the two that counted most went to the prosecution. 1) He ruled that the evidence found at Rockingham could be use against O.J. although he observed that lead detective Vannatter showed, "a reckless disregard for the truth" in obtaining the search warrant. 2) He ruled that only the most innocuous portions of the McKinney taps where Fuhrman used the n-word could be played for the jury.
In his one key ruling for the defense, where he said that he would tell the jury why Fuhrman was not being recalled to the witness stand, the appeals court made a special ruling that reversed him. They decided that Fuhrmans perjury was a separate issue that should be decided in a separate forum, just as the prosecution argued.
When O.J. Simpson was found not guilty Judge Lace Ito and his wife Captain Margaret York both broke down and wept.
Jenner, KrisProsecution witness, former wife of Robert Kardashian, friend of Nicole and Faye Resnick. She introduced Nicole to Faye and accepted the stores Fay told about O.J. except for the ones she knew from personal experience were wrong. She was at the dance recital the evening of the murders and testified that O.J. had a menacing look in his eyes that was unusual and frightening. O.J. said that she was Nicoles friend, not his, and she didnt see him often enough to know what was unusual in his demeanor and what wasnt. Her characterization of O.J.s mood that night was similar to that of Denise Brown and Kardashians first cousin Cynthia Shahian. Other eyewitnesses, a photograph and videotape said otherwise.
Kaelin, Brian (Kato)Timeline, demeanor and physical appearance witness for the prosecution. Much of Marcia Clarks case rested on the clothes the killer was presumed to have worn, the timing of O.J.s cut finger, and whether or not he had an alibi for the time of the killing. Katos testimony was important for all of these reasons. She needed him to say that O.J. was in a dark, brooding mood, that he was wearing a dark blue sweatsuit, and that he heard the thumps before he saw O.J. When Kato refused to characterize Simpsons mood in terms consistent with a man who was about to commit murder, Marcia Clark had him declared a hostile witness.
He testified that he did not see a cut on O.J.s finger when he road with him to McDonalds, or when he left for LAX in the limo. He said that he didnt remember what O.J. was wearing. When pressed, he said that he thought he was wearing dark sweats. O.J. was wearing dark sweatsfor a commercialone week earlier. But they were dark gray, not dark blue.
Returning from McDonalds at 9:35 or 9:40, he was the last person to see O.J. before the murders. Mark Fuhrman and Marcia Clark interpreted the thumps he heard on his wall at 10:40 or 10:45 as O.J. returning from the murder scene, hopping the fence, and banging into the wall. Marcia Clark did not call the witnesses who put the start time of the murders 20 minutes ahead of the time she favored and the ones who put the end time at five minutes or more too late. That was the only way for her to argue that Kato heard O.J. outside when he claimed to be inside.
Kardasian, RobertAttorney, friend of O.J. Simpson, cousin of Cynthia Shahian, former husband of Kris Jenner. He stayed by O.J.s side from the beginning to the end of the criminal trial but had great misgivings about some of the blood evidence he couldnt explain. Oddly enough, he was one of the few people who could accept O.J.s improbable story of cutting himself before he left for Chicago without knowing exactly when or how he did it. The story O.J. told Vannatter and Lange of cutting himself all the time rang true to Kardasian for one very good reason. He had noticed that O.J. frequently had small cuts on his hands and fingers that he paid little attention to. He knew that they were "no big deal."
Kestler, MichelleLAPD Crime Lab Director. With her background in narcotics, she set up security for the lab primarily to guard against unauthorized access to illegal drugs. Consequently, LAPD detectives had virtually free access to all of the evidence in the case. A lens in Juditha Browns glasses with a bloody fingerprint on it was, in fact, stolen, and several unauthorized people were able to get inside of the Bronco without Kestlers knowledge and without being noted on the official log. The cards placed next to bloodstained portions of the Broncos interior showed dates that were out of phase with eyewitness reports of seeing no blood there before or after the dates were inscribed. There was, however, no witness to seeing the Broncos interior without the bloodstains after Kestlers personal inspection of the vehicle and her completion of the form noting precisely what she found and when she found it.
At every stage of the defense teams examination of physical evidence, she denied them access to it or limited their ability to examine it so drastically that they were unable to obtain definitive results. It was her decision not to test the blood drops identified as O.J.s on Bundy for the chemical preservative (see EDTA) that would tell whether or not it had been switched with the blood taken out of O.J.s arm the day after the killings.
She personally took part in supervising, handling, and cataloging items of evidence and noted that there was no apparent blood on the socks that Fuhrman and Roberts found in O.J.s bedroom. She did not allow Dr. Baden or Dr. Wolfe to handle the socks before the DNA tests came back positive for Nicoles blood. She later testified that she didnt look for blood on the socks at that time and couldnt have seen it anyway because of poor lighting and their dark color. Dr. Henry Lee showed the jury how easy it was to see blood on the sheer, black socks in poor light by holding them up to whatever light there was. Lee complained of Kestlers department giving him junk equipment to use and only a fraction of the time necessary to study the crime scenes properly.
KeysThe date that Nicoles housekeeper discovered that Nicoles keys were missing together with the fact that Nicole searched Faye Resnicks purse to find them is significant. So is the fact that Nicole helped to get Faye into a drug rehabilitation facility two days later. Nicole was definitely worried about Faye and what Faye might have done with her keys. It never occurred to Nicole that Faye might have given them to someone else. In the last half of April, O.J. was known to have used a set of her keys to get in and out of her house without disturbing anyone when he was helping her through her illness. Two sets of keys were missing from Nicoles house: a set of two keys that Nicole showed no concern about when she thought that O.J. had them, and a missing set with many keys which was stolen the weekend before she was murdered. According to Cora Fischman, Fay Resnick and Denise Brown not only lied about who Nicole was afraid might have taken her keys, they told the same lie.
King, LarryTelevision and radio interviewer for CNN. At one time or another he interviewed nearly every principle in the case and several of the reporters who were granted permanent seats in the court by Judge Ito. The judge invited him into his chambers for a private conversation. Mark Fuhrmans appearance with him as well as with Dianne Sawyer, Oprah Winfrey and Geraldo Revera to promote his first book, insured that it would become a best-seller. In an interview with defense investigator, Pat McKenna, King was told that the defense had much more evidence of O.J.s innocence than they could present in court. But when King asked him if he thought that O.J. was set up by the killer, he said, "No. I dont think so."
KnifeA single murder weapon traceable to O.J. Simpson. From the early hours of the investigation when the murder weapon appeared to be a knife, police searched everywhere they thought that O.J. might have lost, hidden or disposed of it. When the coroners examination showed that a diagonal stab wound through Ron Goldmans neck and a part of his right ear was made by a thin, sharp blade in a single thrust, the police looked for a knife that matched the wound. They found a German Stiletto. The Stilettos blade matched the sharp force wound in Rons neck and the brass heel matched the blunt force wound on Nicoles head. When the lead detectives found out that O.J. bought such a knife five weeks earlier, they were sure they had made the connection between him and the bodies until O.J.s Stiletto turned up in his home unused. That presented a fatal flaw in the prosecutions case.
As a public figure, it was highly unlikely that he could have purchased a similar knife without anyone knowing about it, or that he would have unless he planned to kill Nicole in cold blood. But if that were true, the call from Paula Barbiari that was supposed to have driven him to murder could no longer have been used as a motive, the rare shoeprints and multiple stab wounds no longer made sense, and Rons appearance could not have been a surprise.
The question that now had to be answered was this: If the knife thought to be the murder weapon cant be traced to O.J. what knife consistent with the wounds on the bodies can be?
In Murder in Brentwood, Fuhrman answered the logical objections to the Stiletto by arguing that O.J. used a Swiss Army knife. He demonstrated convincingly that he was correct in some instances, and possibly correct in other instances. But the stab wound through Rons neck and the bruise on Nicoles head could have been made only with the Stiletto. Fuhrman and Roberts searched O.J.s house on two separate occasions for a knife that could have been used in the killings. The best they could come up with was a fuzzy photo of a box on O.J.s bathtub that they claimed had an indentation for a large Swiss Army knife.
Lakshmanan (See Sathyavagiswaran, Dr. Lakshmanan)
Lange, Det. TomA lead detective from the LAPDs elite Robbery/Homicide Division. When asked by Johnnie Cochran if he ever considered a suspect other than O.J. Simpson, he responded that he didnt. He said that there was no need to because the evidence pointed so clearly to Simpson. In the book he co-authored with Det. Phil Vannatter, he made it clear that the only work they did on the case after viewing the Bundy crime scenes and hearing what Fuhrman had to say about them was to make a case against Simpson. Neither he nor Vannatter saw critical evidence Fuhrman said in his book that he and Roberts saw and pointed out to other detectives. Neither of them read his notes.
Lee, Dr. HenryChief criminalist for the State of Connecticut, laboratory director for the Connecticut State Police forensic laboratory, independent consultant, worlds leading forensic scientist. He testified that the Rockingham blood drops were consistent with a superficial cut and the Bundy blood drops were consistent with a major one. That determination was consistent with O.J.s alibi and ruled out the possibility that Fuhrman and Roberts were right about the blood trail they told everyone led from Bundy to Rockingham. He determined that a second bloody imprint was consistent with a second set of shoeprints smaller than the Bruno Maglis. That strengthens the case for two men on the murder scene, a tall one like Fuhrman who left many distinct shoeprints on purpose, and a shorter man like Roberts who left a few less distinctive ones by mistake (see Akita).
Lewis, CheriDeputy prosecutor, defender of Mark Fuhrman. When the McKinny tapes showed the nazi side of Fuhrman that Kathleen Bell reported to the defense, Lewis argued successfully that the O.J. Simpson case was not the forum in which to address the matter.
Lindner, CharlesDefense team consultant. As the son of Jewish Holocaust survivors who lost their entire family, Liner was struck by the obvious parallels between Adolph Hitler before he came to power and Mark Fuhrman. It was his idea to use that comparison in the summation Johnnie Cochran gave for which he received so much criticism from prominent Jews and Jewish organizations (see Cochran, Johnnie).
Lopez, RosaHousekeeper for O.J.s next door neighbors. From the very start, she was a victim of her status as a maid and her lack of proficiency with the English language. She was ignored by all of the police except Mark Fuhrman and Brad Roberts who didnt report their talk with her. She was browbeaten and demeaned by the prosecution. She was ill served by her first interpreter. Bill Pavelic, one of the detectives working for Simpsons defense team, paraphrased what she said to him about when she saw O.J.s Bronco parked on Rockingham and passed it on to Johnnie Cochran. He told Cochran that he had a witness who would say that she saw the Bronco at 10:15, the time Marcia Clark was trying to say the killing began at Bundy. Cochran made that a part of his opening statement. He later found out from Pat McKenna that Pavlic had arrived at the time by assuming that the actions she described before seeing the Bronco took five times longer than they actually did.
Luper, Det. BertRobbery/Homicide detective in charge of searching O.J.s house. Though he was officially in charge of the search on the 13th, Mark Fuhrman and Brad Roberts were invariably first to enter the rooms where incriminating evidence was discovered and pointed out to other officers. During O.J.s criminal trial, Luper left the impression that he was the one who discovered the socks on the rug in O.J.s bedroom without actually saying so. But in Fuhrmans book about the case, Fuhrman indicated that he and Roberts were there first. What Luper did say in court was consistent with that much of Fuhrmans story. Luper also admitted to removing an XL Aris Isotoner Light glove from a drawer in O.J.s room and absentmindedly leaving it in another room. He had discovered one black pair and a single brown glove. The missing glove was never recovered or accounted for.
Lynch, DennyPublic Relations director for the Buffalo Bills Football Club. He was one of the men in the 1993 photo of O.J. wearing Bruno Magli Lorenzos. Near the end of the civil trial, he began to shop around for buyers of one photo he said appeared in the Buffalo Bills newsletter he published. He had several copies of the newsletter dated 1993. However, no one else produced a single copy or testified to having seen one prior to 1996not one member of the Buffalo Bills fan club who wasnt directly associated with Lynch or the agent for the boys who said they took the photos on the same day. The only way the photos could have been faked is for someone with access to every single photo that could have been taken in Rich Stadium that day to be in on it. No one was better situated to get that information than Denny Lynch.
MacDonell, HerbertDefense blood spatter expert. His expertise in blood spatter interpretation was internationally recognized as being unsurpassed by anyone in the world. As was the case with Michael Baden and Henry Lee, that reputation was worth more to him than anything he could hope to gain by slanting his findings in favor of the defense. Thats what made his testimony so important for the defense. Apart from Dennis Fung who explained how direction of travel was determined by blood drops left at a crime scene, the only blood pattern experts in the trial testified for the defense. Dr. Lee confirmed what Fung said about direction, which strongly suggested that the blood drops next to the size 12 shoeprints at Bundy that showed no direction were deliberately deposited from a stationary position.
MacDonells analysis of the blood found on the socks also indicated that it was deliberately deposited. On the macroscopic level, he showed that the blood that soaked through the inner and outer wall of one side of a sock and the inner wall of the opposite side could not have gotten on all three surfaces with a foot inside. One a microscopic level he was able to prove that the blood was planted because of tell-tale beading that could have occurred only if the sock had been laid out on a hard, flat surface and the blood swiped on.
Mandel, DannyDefense timeline witness (see Aaronson, Ellen).
Martz, RogerFBI defense expert (see EDTA).
Matheson, GregSID Chief Chemist. As Michelle Kestlers second in command, he ran the day-to-day operation of the lab. He and supervisor Dennis Fung assisted Kestler in cataloging items of evidence which included the socks. None of them saw blood on the socks. During his direct examination, he described security precautions at Piper Tech, where most of the lab work was done, in such a way that unauthorized access to evidence would have seemed impossible. He failed to mention the fact that all of the blood evidence in the Simpson case was taken to Parker Center for further processing before it was sent out to independent testing facilities. There, the only security was a locked door to a room that was often unoccupied.
The processing room at Parker Center had no surveillance cameras or guards stationed on the premises to keep an eye on the evidence. There were no precautions in either building to keep lab personnel from tampering with evidence or allowing others to do so at their individual discretion. Indeed, lead detectives were given unfettered access to any evidence they wanted. As the first lead detective in the case and an ongoing assistant of Lange and Vannatter, its not clear whether Fuhrman would have been given that access officially. No one asked, and no one volunteered an answer. Unofficially, anything was possible with little or no inside help. Fuhrman did indicate that he knew people in that lab. The only one he said he didnt know was Dennis Fung.
Mazzola, AndreaRookie criminalist. She collected most of the blood evidence at Bundy and Rockingham. Her supervisor, Dennis Fung, got into trouble on the witness stand by indicating that he was the one who collected the evidence. He explained that he put his name on the form that documented the evidence collection process because he was in charge. However, the name of the person who did the actual work was important because of its role in establishing a chain of custody that would minimize the possibility of tampering. As it was, she did not count the cloth swatches she transferred the blood onto, then wrapped in a paper bundle, which went into a plastic bag before going into a coin envelope. She testified that she put her initials on the coin envelopes she used on Bundy for the blood drops next to the shoeprints. Thats the way she submitted them to Fung who was told by Greg Matheson to turn them over to Collin Yamauchi. The samples he got back from the unsecured room at Parker Center tested positive for O.J. Simpsons blood. The coin envelopes containing the cloth swatches with the blood on them did not have Andrea Mazolas initials on them.
McCelroy, RobProfessional photographer, one time agent for Harry Scull and E.J. Flammer. In addition to being friends and budding professional photographers, who took photos purporting to show that O.J. lied about owning the infamous Bruno Magli Lorenzos, Scull and Flammer had something else in common. Both young men hired Rob McCelroy to sell their photos to the media.
Scull, who was not signed in that day to take photos in the stadium, accepted $2,500 out of the $15,000 McCelroy got in the spring of 96 for his one indistinct photo that could not be proven to show O.J. wearing Bruno Maglis. A few days shy of January, 1997, Flammer hired McCelroy to represent him in the sale of his photos for an undisclosed amount of money.
Between Scull, Flammer, McCelroy, Lynch and Munson, all of the requirements for fakes that the best experts in the world would not be able to detect with the most sophisticated equipment were met. The odds of all of those necessary elements coming together by chance were astronomical and well beyond O.J.s ability to predict when he said the photos were fakes.
McKenna, PatPrivate investigator hired by F. Lee Bailey. On more than one occasion, he found that Bill Pavelic, the PI hired before him by attorney Robert Shapiro, filed reports that were less than accurate or complete (see Lopez, Rosa). But his conviction that Fuhrman found the bloody glove when he was called to Bundy and planted it to stay on the case stopped him from investigating Fuhrman as a murder suspect (see King, Larry).
McKinny, Laura HartUniversity professor, screenwriter. In the spring of 1985, Mark Fuhrman approached her at an outdoor cafe in California and struck up a conversation. He showed an interest in her work as a writer. She showed her interest in him as a cop. For the next nine years they collaborated on a screenplay about officers in the LAPD for which Fuhrman was supposed to provide his insights as a street-wise cop.
She tape-recorded her conversations with him over that time in which he made liberal use of the n-word. But the most damaging parts of the tapes which Judge Ito did not allow the jury to hear (see Lewis, Cheri) were not a matter of language, but of content. He boasted on those tapes of his love for violence against minorities, his genius at lying on the witness stand, his predilection for planting evidence and his run-in with Judge Itos wife, Peggy York of Internal Affairs. McKinny introduced him to Hollywood producers from time to time. One of those producers, who chose to remain anonymous, told Pat McKenna about the tapes, which resulted in Fuhrmans conviction for perjury.
McNally, JohnPrivate investigator. He worked out the timeline for the defense that made it impossible for O.J. to have committed the murders and left the evidence behind that incriminated him. But like the other PIs working for the defense, he never suspected Fuhrman of the murders and never followed up on his connections to Faye Resnick, William Wasz, or Denise Brown. Nor did he or his fellow PIs follow up on Fuhrmans connections to Brad Roberts, the Police Protective League or the Scientific Investigation Division. He never investigated Fuhrman and Roberts as murder suspects. Nobody on the defense team did.
Meraz, JohnTow truck driver. He took receipts from the Bronco. Though he entered the Bronco after photos were supposedly taken showing blood on the instrument panel, the door and the console, he saw no blood. He was clearly surprised to see the dates on the photos that were shown to him by Marcia Clark.
MezzalunaA restaurant less than a half mile from Nicoles condo. Ron Goldman worked there as a waiter. Keith Zlomsowitch, the man O.J. saw in a sexual encounter with Nicole, was the manager. Nicole ate her last meal there. Her mother lost the glasses that were found in the gutter outside, put in a size 10 envelope, and taken by Ron to Nicoles home.
Moore, Terri911 operator. She recorded the 93 call that Nicole made and Marcia Clark used in court together with the photo of Nicole with the bruise on her head that was taken after the 89 incident. In that recording, O.J. could be clearly heard arguing in the background (see Heidstra, Robert), but he made no threats and never got within ten feet of her. What the tape did indicate was the sound of O.J.s voice when he was extremely angry. Even when his words were unclear, his voice was distinctively and unmistakably his. The "deeper, older-sounding voice" that Robert Heidstra and Sydney Simpson heard arguing on the killing ground was not one that either of them was familiar with. Neither of them had ever heard Brad Roberts. The prosecution never called him to the stand.
Mulldorfer, Det. KellyLAPD detective. She investigated the unauthorized removal of credit card receipts from O.J.s Bronco. She went inside of the vehicle just as John Meraz had done and saw no blood. She also found no record of entry by any of the people who where known to have entered the vehicle without authorization.
Munchausen by proxyThe heroic response of people to a crisis situation that they created for the purpose of getting special attention and respect. Firefighters who start apartment fires to rescue trapped tenants, nurses and doctors who put patients at risk to save them, etc., are two examples. A homicide detective who commits a murder in order to solve it is another. For a homicide detective like Mark Fuhrman, Munchausen by proxy would have been a powerful motive for murdering someone and framing someone who could put him in the national spotlight.
Munson, BillAssistant Public Relations Director for the Buffalo Bills Football Club. He was one of the men who posed with O.J. in a picture taken in 1993 that showed O.J. wearing the Bruno Magli Lorenzos that O.J. swore he never owned. O.J. said that the photos were faked. They were. They could not have been without Munsons knowledge and consent (see Lynch, Denny).
N-wordA euphemism for the ethnic slur "nigger." Although Mark Fuhrman was put in legal jeopardy for denying his use of the n-word, the damage to O.J.s "colorless" image came from n-word stereotype of him painted by the mainstream media. Time magazine was called on its alteration of O.J.s mug-shot to make him appear darker than he wasa deliberate accentuation of his color within the context of his white ex-wifes murder in an apparent crime of passion. However, all of the major television networks accepted without question the motive that prosecutors attributed to O.J. for the murder that rested entirely on that image. The idea was that O.J. was so obsessed with white women in general that being rejected by two white women was more than he could stand.
The n-word was commonly used to describe that kind of African-American male. By the same token, the image was sufficient to call up the word. It was the cornerstone for D.W. Griffiths Birth of a Nation, a racist history of Reconstruction that made heroes out of the Ku Klux Klan, and villains or fools of African-Americans in general.
Naked Gun, TheA trio of films co-starring O.J. Simpson. In addition to the knit cap and dark brown leather glove in the famous Rolph Rokahr photograph of Fuhrman pointing to the glove, The Naked Gun series had scores of parallels between the murders and theories, practices and discoveries of Mark Fuhrman.
Neufeld, PeterDefense attorney, DNA expert. Judge Ito made his personal dislike for him apparent in the rulings he made that hindered Neufelds ability to demonstrate when and how evidence could have been planted. His questioning of Michelle Kestler was interrupted with so many objections that he could not conduct an entirely coherent examination.
Ney, NancyHotline counselor at the Sojourn Counseling Center for battered women. Because her testimony was hearsay, she was not allowed to appear as a witness in O.J.s criminal trial. The State of California then passed a special law to admit her testimony into evidence in the civil trial without so much as attempting to recover telephone records to show whiter or not the murder victim-to-be could have made the call.
Ney testified that on June 7, 1994, she answered a call from a woman who said that her name was Nicole. The woman, who sounded distraught to Ney, did not give her last name or the name of her ex-husband who she said had stalked and beaten her and was threatening to kill her. But she said more than enough about herself, where she lived, the age and sex of her children and the celebrity status of her ex-husband to narrow the range of possibilities to Nicole and O.J. Simpson. Her account of what her ex was doing to make her fear for her life at that time was repeated only in the tales told after her death by Faye Resnick and Denise Brown.
Two days before the call, Faye Resnick checked into a drug rehabilitation clinic with her cellular phone. One day before the call, Nicole noticed that her keys were missing. She searched Resnicks belongings to find them after considering and rejecting the idea that O.J. might have taken them. She came up empty, but apparently felt secure enough with O.J. on the loose and Resnick locked away not to change her locks. She gave no indication of being aware of the call. She told none of her friends (see Shahian, Cynthia) or relatives about it or about any incident on the 5th, 6th or 7th that corresponded to what the woman, supposedly in imminent fear for her life, told Nancy Ney on the 7th. The shelter did not record its emergency calls, and the woman who called herself Nicole gave Ney no number where she could be reached for helpor conformation.
Another suspicious thing about the call to the shelter that supposedly came from Nicole Brown Simpson, is the fact that it didnt go 911. Nicole had never called the hotline number before and would have had to look up the number. Furthermore, she showed no hesitance in calling 911 where O.J. was involved and evoking "his record" to get instant response. Thats precisely what happened in 1993, the first and only time the public heard her speaking to a 911 operator. "His record" was the one established after the 89 incident by Mark Fuhrmans letter to the city attorney that forced O.J. to plead no contest to a charge of misdemeanor spousal abuse. Part of his punishment was to pay a token amount to the Sojourn Counseling Center in Santa Monica.
In short, the only logical connection between Nicole Brown Simpson and Nancy Neys shelter for battered women is Mark Fuhrmans report to the city attorney. The only useful purpose it could serve would be to reinforce the image of O.J. as a stalker and a batterer. The only obvious beneficiaries of that reinforcement who were involved with Nicole before her death were Fay Resnick, Denise Brown, Ron Shipp and Mark Fuhrman. If Nicole truly feared that O.J. would try to kill her, she knew a least one unforgettable cop who could and would stand against him. He was the cop who gave O.J. his record of spouse abuse when Nicole refused to press charges and boasted of being her "private cop." He was a big guy who simply showed up one day four years earlier when O.J. was being rowdy and she called Westec to put him in check. His name was Mark Fuhrman.
Nigg, MichaelA Mezzaluna waiter, aspiring actor, friend of Ron Goldman, murder victim. He was shot it the head in an announced robbery attempt where no money was taken, his companion was not injured and his assailants got away. Though rumors abounded that his death was linked to federal investigations of Mezzaluna as a place where illegal drugs were bought and sold, there is scant evidence to support them. By the same token, there is no reason to discount the possibility that it might have been linked to the murder of his friends, Bret Cantor and Ronald Goldman.
If, as evidence suggests, Fuhrman were so upset with Jim Abrams and the Zucker brothers for the characters they created in The Naked Gun that he would murder a Jew in symbolic revenge, one wouldnt be enough. He would have to kill three of them who were linked in some way to each other and, no matter how tangentially, to O.J. Simpson and the entertainment business. Brett Canter on July 30, 1993 fills the bill for the first one. Ron Goldman in Brentwood on June 12, 1994 would be two. Michael Nigg on September 9, 1995 makes three. He was killed in Hollywood.
Nolan, Det. ThomasWest L.A. Detective. The last detective called to the murder scene by the West L.A. homicide coordinator Ron Phillips, he was one of six detectives under Phillips direct command. Though his detectives worked in pairs and Nolan was one of four detectives on call for that night, Phillips testified that he could not contact the other three. He notified Fuhrman and Roberts who werent on call, then called Nolan over a half hour later, too late for him to do any significant work on the case.
Occam's RazorA scientific rule of thumb that gives preference to simple answers over complicated ones when two or more theories compete. Taken at face value the evidence of O.J.'s guilt makes him the most likely killer. When that theory is contrasted to the defense theory of a drug hit and a spontaneous police cover-up, it looks even better. But in both theories so many complex mental gymnastics have to be applied to account for details that don't fit that neither theory holds up well next to one in which O.J. was framed by the killer. The problem with that theory has to do with the huge number of unlikely personal characteristics and network of witting and unwitting accomplices the killer would have to have. Mark Fuhrman had every one of them.
OthelloThe title character in William Shakespeares story about love, jealousy and murder. One of the first things Mark Fuhrman did when he arrived at Rockingham with Phillips, Lange and Vannatter was to shine a light on a package that said "Orenthal Enterprises." The subtle reference to Othello was not missed by anyone familiar with Shakespeares immortal play. In Mark Fuhrmans book, Murder in Brentwood, he makes a point of referring to the movie Ghosts, which he found in O.J.s VCR. Jealousy had nothing to do with Ghosts. But Ghosts did have something to do with The Naked Gun. In Fuhrmans book, he characterized that movie about greed, betrayal and undying love as though he were talking about Othello, "a story about love, jealousy and murder."
Park, AllanAspiring actor, limousine driver. Marcia Clark used his testimony that he did not see O.J.s Bronco when he arrived at Rockingham and that his persistent ringing for ten minutes meant that O.J. was not at home. She used his observation of O.J. in dark clothes walking into his house from his driveway as proof that Park saw him returning from Bundy after the murders. Those observations where called into question when he reported seeing Arnelles SAAB that wasnt there and not seeing the Bronco when it was there. He said that O.J. told him he overslept. O.J. denied that he told him that. Kato confirmed it. He was the one who asked O.J. if he had overslept.
Peratis, ThanoThe nurse who took a sample of O.J.s blood at Parker Center. He was too ill to appear in person at the criminal trial, but he made a sworn statement that he took 8 ccs of blood. The only way for O.J.s attorneys to make a credible claim that someone planted his blood was to show that a sufficient amount was missing. Less than one cc would have been enough. When the defense learned that one and a half ccs were missing and couldnt be accounted for by normal handling or even Collin Yamauchis spill, Parasite changed his story to say that he had overestimated the amount of blood he extracted by the amount that was missing. The problem with his adjusted recollection, apart from the timing, was his long experience with the purple-top test tube the blood went into and the fact that it was clearly marked. Without knowing for sure how much blood they started with the police and prosecutors had no way of knowing with any degree of scientific certainty where all of it ended up (see GIGO).
Pavelic, WilliamPrivate investigator for Robert Shapiro, former police detective. As a man of proven integrity, one of the reasons he left the LAPD was because of all the lying and evidence planting that went on in the department as a matter of routine. He did a tremendous amount of work up front to get a general picture of what happened at Bundy and Rockingham on the 12th and 13th of June, and what evidence might favor the defense. He accepted Fuhrmans damaging "bleeding killer theory" as true without knowing the source, and was criticized unfairly by Pat McKenna and Joe Bosco for sometimes handling evidence as uncritically as the prosecution did to make things look better for his team. But given the sheer volume of work he had to do and the time he had to do it, the small number of errors he made were well within the scope of what anyone could reasonably expect from the most honest and accomplished of investigators anywhere.
He found discrepancies in the crime scene log and the search warrant request that omitted Fuhrmans arrival at Bundy until after the blood glove was fond and his digging may have forced the police against their wishes to admit who found it. More than anyone else, he sorted through the jungle of information and misinformation that gave O.J. Simpson a fighting chance to win by showing how much of that information led back to Fuhrman. His investigation of Fuhrman in connection with another case (see Britton, Joseph) uncovered his racist record, his proclivity for planting evidence and all of the material involved in his suit against the LAPD to win a disability pension after only 5 years on the job.
Phillips, Det. RonaldWest L.A. homicide coordinator, Mark Fuhrmans friend and supervisor. Fuhrman could not have planned and carried out the murder/frame-up plot that eventually won him fame and fortune without knowing that he would be the first detective on the crime scene (see Primacy Effect). All things being equal, it was not likely that Fuhrman would have been in that position with only three years as a homicide detective and ten cases that hed investigated in that time. Lange and Vannatter, by contrast, had conducted hundreds of investigations. Ron Phillips friendship with Fuhrman meant that all things were not equal. His testimony and the testimony of the man who informed him of the murders made it clear that Fuhrman was his first choice all the way, even though he wasnt on call for that night.
What Phillips did not make clear was who Fuhrmans partner was. He gave the impression that he was Fuhrmans partner and that Brad Roberts, the man that Fuhrman said was his "regular partner" was called only because he couldnt get in touch with other detectives. He also suggested that Roberts would team up with Tom Nolan. That was not true. Roberts was not only Fuhrmans regular partner, he was his partner in the investigation.
Pilnak, DeniseNeighbor of Nicole. Her preoccupation with the correct time, the recorded time she called her mother relative to the time that she heard the dog bark, plus the corroborating testimony of others, made her the most credible timeline witness for either side.
Police Protective LeagueThe LAPD union that represented Mark Fuhrman and for whom Mark Fuhrman served as an elected representative. Charges by black officers that it was "A bastion of white supremacy" carried little weight in the media even though Fuhrmans alibi rested on his attendance at a Protective League seminar and BAR-B-Q 150 miles away. He said that he left "before 8:00 p.m.," but he didnt say how much earlier than 8:00. No evidence was sought or produced by the prosecution or the defense to show that he was even there on the evening of the murders (see Pavlic, William).
For Fuhrman to have expressed his racist ideas as openly as several people said he did in front of other police officers, he had to have well-placed friends in the department who did not object. As an elected PPL union representative he not only had friends in the department who were willing to tolerate the way he expressed himself, he had a winning percentage of members who voted for him to speak for them. Neither the prosecution nor the defense bothered to see which members of the LAPD he represented or what their role was in the Simpson case.
PolygraphA machine for detecting minute physiological responses to stress. For most people, knowledge of guilt plus fear of being caught by the machine is enough to trigger the physical changes that a skilled polygraph operator can interpret as a lie. However a valid reading requires that the subject be as stress-free as possible. The timing of the polygraph test given to O.J. (2 days after the killing) vs. the ones given to Fuhrman (one year after his perjury conviction) made a comparison of the two invalid.
Posers, SamuelManager of Bloomingdales shoe department in New York City. Nicole and Faye Resnick both shopped at that Bloomingdales store during the time someone bought a pair of size 12, Bruno Magli Lorenzos. Denise Brown shopped there when she lived in New York with her sister Dominique. The closest the prosecution came to tying O.J. to the killers shoes was Posers memory of O.J. looking at shoes similar to them when the Bruno Magli Lorenzos were in stock. He remembered not recommending them. He did not recall what O.J. bought but the shoes O.J. wore to his daughters dance recital were similar in style. He didnt know the brand name. But they were not close enough in his mind that he would confuse them. He called the Lorenzos "Ugly ass shoes" that he would never wear (see Flammer, E.J).
Prenuptial AgreementThe legal agreement Nicole signed before her marriage to O.J. To leave the marriage with half of O.J.s wealth, he had to abandon the agreement. The charges of spouse abuse that she was able to make with the record of 911 calls attributed to her between 1985 and 1989 gave her the clout to do that. Mark Fuhrman made his presence felt on both ends of that record (see Ney, Nancy).
Primacy EffectThe tendency to believe the first plausible answer to a question we see or hear. Like any bias, it is hardly ever recognized as such by the people caught in its gravitational pull and it is very difficult to break free. When news of the Bundy murders were first reported, it came with all of the information necessary for most people to logically conclude that O.J. Simpson committed the crime in a jealous rage. What we couldnt know was the importance of the information that was missing. Once the prosecution accepted the idea that all of the evidence linked to O.J. in the first 8 hours of the investigation proved his guilt, no mount of evidence to the contrary was likely to change it. Their "search for truth" consisted entirely of seeking to patch up the holes in their case.
By the same token, a minority of people who were not persuaded by the early evidence against Simpson for whatever reason or lack of reason, accepted O.J.s first thought of a drug hit gone bad and a police conspiracy to frame him. The result was a collection of clues that worked for the defense as long as they werent rigorously examined. Once that mode of thought was set it was impossible for the defense team to break out of it. Fuhrman became nothing more than a racist cop who lucked into the case, found, hid and planted a bloody glove to ruin a famous black man and promote himself.
The influence of the Primacy Effect can be offset by the Latency Effect, which gives the greatest amount weight to the last thing we hear. In California, the prosecution presents its case firstand last. California prosecutors have an extremely high rate of convictions.
Purdy, AndyLAPD officer intimidated by Mark Fuhrman (see Coleman, Lucien). Mark Fuhrman openly harassed him for marrying a Jew. When someone broke into his locker and painted swastikas inside, the incident was investigated by Internal Affairs. The investigators found Fuhrmans fingerprints inside. Purdy was a good friend of Deputy DA Lucien Coleman when he told her that Mark Fuhrman was capable of doing everything the defense accused him of, including planting evidence. He kept a log of Fuhrmans racist activities until Coleman asked him to repeat his story to Bill Hodgman and Marcia Clark. He destroyed the log and told her that he would perjure himself rather than tell anyone in authority what he knew about Fuhrman.
Race CardA pejorative term for introducing evidence of Mark Fuhrmans racism. Common wisdom among white, mainstream media journalists and pundits led by the New Yorkers Jeffrey Toobin held that Fuhrmans racial attitudes had nothing to do with his work as a detective. Assuming that was true, the defense was using race as an emotional smokescreen to hide irrefutable evidence of Simpsons guilt. "Assuming" is the key word.
The "race card" idea rested on a racist assumption. It made the racist assumption that the majority of blacks on the jury would not be capable of rational thought and would stop listening to real evidence against a black defendant if a white cop was accused of racism. It made the racist assumption that the minority of whites would feel the pressure of their minority status on the jury and the collective racial guilt of their majority status in the country and act accordingly. Therefore, when O.J.s attorneys made an issue of Fuhrmans racial attitudes and his behavior based on those attitudes, they were accused of "playing the race card." The term was never applied to Jeffrey Toobin, Marcia Clark, Christopher Darden or Mark Fuhrman.
In Toobins best-selling book, The Run of His Life, he appropriates blatant examples of white racism from the records of Mark Fuhrman and the LAPD to make a subtle racist point. He uses them only to show how O.J.s defense team used race inappropriately, cynically and unethically to create irrational feelings about the true evidence of O.J.s guilt. No kidding. Thats exactly what he did, and he did it consistently throughout the entire book.
When Christopher Darden tried unsuccessfully to make earwitness Robert Heidstra say that he heard a black man arguing on the killing ground, Johnnie Cochran angrily objected. Cochran called Dardens question "racist," insisting that it was impossible to determine a mans race by his voice. The way Toobin saw that exchange through his "impartial blue eyes," Cochran had to be acting in bad faith because of the obvious differences in speech patterns between most whites and most blacks under most conditions. If the dogs hadnt been barking so loudly and incessantly, if Heidstra had been able to discern the speech patterns of the two men he heard arguing, and if O.J. Simpson had been I.M. Nobody, Toobin might have had a point. But Heidstra had already said that he couldnt make out a word of what the man with the deeper, older-sounding voice was saying and he knew O.J.s voice. If he told anyone outside of court that he thought the voice sounded like a black mans it was most likely because he was convinced by other evidence that O.J. had to be guilty. But he could not say that under oath because it wasnt what he knew he heard.
The issue was not whether the killer sounded like "a black man," but whether he sounded like O.J. Simpson. Darden is the one who was playing the race card and Cochran called him on it.
One of the things that made O.J. nearly unique prior to the killings was his "colorless" status in America. That is to say, his name had become so much bigger in the collective American consciousness that his color did not color most peoples opinion of him in any way, not even with respect to his choice of women. O.J. was simply O.J. He could have and do anything within reason that the land of the free and the home of the brave had to offer.
Then came the murders and the accusations of stalking and the Othello analogy and Time Magazines doctoring of O.J.s mug shot to make him darker than he was. O.J. was no longer colorless to the vast majority of white Americans. The motive for murder attributed to him by the prosecution and accepted overwhelmingly by whites rested on a Jim Crow stereotype of "the black mans" lust for white women (see Walker, Dr. Lenore). When Cochran challenged Dardens question about "a black mans voice" thats what he was reacting to, the new image of the formerly colorless O.J., not as a black man, but as the black man who made Jim Crow seem like a reasonable idea.
RacismThe theory and practice of race-based decision making. Prior to the civil rights movement of the 1960s, Americans debated the question of racial discrimination in terms of racial prejudice and whether or not it was justified in some cases. The word racist, as it has been used since then, grew out of that debate to describe the phenomenon in terms of other ethnocentric "isms" like colonialism and imperialism. In the 60s and 70s most people understood it to mean what "prejudice" meant to them in 40s and 50s without the question of whether it was ever justified. Television took care of that subtle but important shift in perception with nightly images of white people in the Jim Crow South that have become stereotypes of cruel, mindless and ridiculous bigotsracists. The n-word now had a white counterpart, the r-word.
Words with that kind of bite can cause terrible pain and leave lasting scars. Nobody wanted to be called a racist, and to apply that label without ironclad proof that it was accurately descriptive was a risky proposition for all but the most strident and unprincipled demagogues. It was all right to think that black people were morally, emotionally and intellectually inferior to whites as long as the language used to say it didnt include the n-word (see Toobin, Jeffrey).
Reichardt, ChristianChiropractor, Faye Resnicks former boyfriend. He was the one who insisted that Faye Resnick commit herself to a drug rehab center. He told Ian Bowater (the chief investigator for Killing Times Donald Freed and Raymond Briggs) that she had a major drug habit which made her completely unreliable. Before talking to him, Chris Darden assumed that every negative thing she said about O.J.s treatment of Nicole was true. Then the prosecution did enough checking to learn that nothing she said could be relied on without corroboration. They chose not to call Resnick to testify against O.J. They attacked Reichardt nevertheless for his testimony that O.J. sounded up-beat and normal when he talked to him on the phone shortly before O.J. went to McDonalds with Kato Kaelin.
Reiders, FredricEDTA expert (see EDTA).
Resnick, FayeFormer housemate of Nicole Brown Simpson. She set up the fatal meeting between Nicole and Ron. She called Nicole shortly before she was killed. She also struck it rich before O.J.s trial and made a fast friend of Geraldo Revera with a book that portrayed O.J. as an insanely jealous, two-faced monster.
Although California law did not require the prosecution to show a motive for the savage slaying of O.J.s former wife and her young, male friend, public opinion demanded it. Denise Browns shouts of, "O.J. did it!" and Ron Shipps anonymous contribution to a book that had O.J. virtually confessing to the crime helped. They meshed with Mark Fuhrmans report on his experience with the couple, his interpretation of the blood evidence at Bundy, his partners interpretation of the blood evidence at Rockingham, and O.J.s cut finger. But Resnicks portrait of O.J. was the model that the prosecution used to establish a motive for the murders. It was what Marcia Clark was looking for after talking to Fuhrman in O.J.s backyard on the 13th to show the escalating pattern of violence typical of spouse-abusers who go on to murder the woman they abused (see Walker, Dr. Lenore).
For the prosecution of O.J. Simpson it was as important to play down Faye Resnicks cocaine addiction as it was to play down Mark Fuhrmans racism. To find the truth it was important to determine whether or not there was a connection between Resnick the narcotics addict and Fuhrman the former narcotics cop. Neither the prosecution nor the defense pursued the matter. The judge in the civil case ruled those subjects out of order.
Richards, JerryA former photo analyst for the FBI. He testified in the civil trial that photographs of Simpson wearing Bruno Magli shoes appeared authentic. He said he saw no signs of alteration or substitution of the negatives. He acknowledged under cross-examination that someone with the motivation, time, equipment and expertise could have faked the photographs. The men representing the photos as genuine had all of these characteristics between them (see Lynch, Denny or McCelroy, Rob).
Riske, RobertLAPD patrol officer. He was the first police officer on the murder scene. Although he took special care not to disturb anything, he couldnt be sure if Goldman was dead until he bent over him and touched his eyeballs. Riskes uniform was dark blue, possibly made up of blue/black cotton fibers. To this day, no one has checked.
Experts for the prosecution said that blue/black cotton fibers were found on Rons shirt. Marcia Clark argued that they came from the sweatsuit O.J. wore the night of the killingalthough O.J. denied owning such a sweatsuit, none was found and no blue/black fibers were ever found in his home, in his Bentley or in his Bronco. They were, however, found on his socks, but not on the rug where Mark Fuhrman and Brad Roberts said they found the socks.
Rivera, GeraldoTelevision journalist, commentator and talk show host. Early in the investigation of O.J. Simpson, Geraldo Revera took the position that it was an open-and-shut case of O.J.s guilt. He turned his nightly legal talk show into a campaign against Simpson and a thinly veiled attack on the intelligence and integrity of African-Americans in general as reflected in their overwhelming approval of the criminal jurys not guilty verdict. His interviews with Faye Resnick and Mark Fuhrman and his endorsement of their books, helped to give both of them the credibility they needed to become wealthy, best-selling authors.
Rokahr, RolfLAPD photographer. He took the picture of Mark Fuhrman pointing to the bloody glove on Bundy. The controversy surrounding that picture includes the question of when it was taken, who asked for it to be taken and why Fuhrman, of all the detectives on the scene, came to be associated with both bloody gloves. By establishing the time that the picture was taken, the defense sought to demonstrate that Fuhrman knew he would find the matching glove at Rockingham because he put it there a few minutes earlier. They theorized that he found both gloves at Bundy and slipped away undetected to Rockingham with one of them in a plastic bag. They further theorized that he smeared blood from the glove inside the Bronco, planted it behind Kato Kaelins bungalow, and returned to Bundy without anyone realizing hed left.
The problem with that theory was the fact that four of the defenses own witnesses testified that they saw no blood on the Bronco or in it the day it was impounded or for weeks thereafter. There are several good reasons to believe them and no good reason not to. The timing of Rokahrs photo did show that Fuhrman, in all probability, had prior knowledge of the glove he would find a short while later at Rockingham. The question is, how could he have known?
Ross CutleryThe knife shop in LA where O.J. purchased a German Stiletto. During a portion of the movie Frogmen that was shot in Los Angeles five weeks before the killing, O.J. walked across the street to Ross Cutlery and purchased a German Stiletto knife in full view of dozens of witnesses. He paid for it with a $100 bill and waited to have it sharpened before taking it with him. Marcia Clark and the two lead detectives reacted to news of the purchase with certainty that they knew what the murder weapon was and that it was only a matter of time before they found it. They did not know that another detective had already found and returned the unused knife with the price tag and factory oil still on it. Early in the preliminary hearing, Delbert Wong, a former judge, was appointed by the court to retrieve the knife. He gave it to Robert Shapiro who handed it to Judge Ito in a large brown envelope. The contents of the envelope were the subject of speculation for months.
Rubin, RichardFormer purchasing executive for Isotoner gloves. He testified that the bloody gloves worn by the killer were Aris Isotoner Lights distinguishable by a unique stitching pattern. To explain why the gloves did not fit O.J. Simpson, he said that they could have shrunk by as much as 15% because they were wet. Tests made by the defense refuted that claim. The prosecution chose not to make tests of its own.
Saint John, DaleOwner of Town and Country Limousine, O.J.s regular driver, Allan Parks boss. Parks calls to him were crucial in establishing with telephone records when Park and Kato first saw each other. That, in turn, set up a number of scenarios in which it was more or less likely that O.J. made the thumps that Kato heard against his wall. St. John was an important witness for the plaintiffs in the civil trial, rebutting O.J.s claim that he didnt open the gate for Park because he was afraid the dog would get out. St. John said that O.J. had never left him waiting because of the dog and that he had never seen the dog run out of the gate. What he didnt say was that O.J. rarely buzzed him in. When he went out of town, the maid usually stayed behind. The maid usually buzzed him in.
San Diego FreewayThe rout Allan Park drove from Torrance north to Rockingham in Brentwood. Torrance lies next to Redondo Beach where Mark Fuhrman lived. Town and Country was right on the border. The San Diego Freeway is what Fuhrman and Park had in common on the 12th of June for a quick drive to Brentwood from nearly the same starting point. Its the rout Mark Fuhrman took from his home in Redondo Beach to the police station less than a mile from the murder scene.
Sathyavagiswaran, Dr. Lakshmanan: LA County Chief Medical Examiner. He was called in to testify in place of Dr. Irwin Golden, the deputy medical examiner who performed the autopsy on Ron and Nicole. He was on the stand for nine days, eight of which were taken up in direct examination by the prosecutions Brian Kelberg. In all that time neither the prosecution nor the defense brought up the possibility that one killer could have used a different knife in each hand. Kelberg fashioned his questions to show that there was only one killer using one knife anticipating that the defense would try to show that there were two knives and therefore two killers.
Dr. Sathyavagiswaran commented on every note made by Dr. Golden about every wound found on each body. He explained that the same knife could have made wounds that appeared to have been made by different knives and that a single-edged knife could have made wounds that appeared to be made by a double-edged knife. He did not attempt to explain the multiple angles of entry on the left and right side of Goldmans body except to say that they could have come from the front or the rear. He confirmed Dr. Goldens estimate of how long the knife was by way of the probe he used to measure the path of one of the stab wounds on the left side of Rons neck and a portion of his right ear.
Savage, TracieTelevision news reporter for KNBC,Channel 4 in Los Angeles. Savage reported the correct results of DNA testing on socks collected from O.J.'s bedroom rug before the tests were made. She said that they tested positive for Nicole's blood. Her report was an exclusive. She made it before the jury was selected. She never revealed her source.
Scheck, BarryNew York defense attorney specializing in DNA. Scheck, Blasier and Neufeld made their reputation on using DNA evidence to clear their clients. Contrary to the widespread notion that Scheck tried to get the jury to discount the DNA evidence against O.J., his biggest problem was getting anyone to understand it. Reporters, commentators and his fellow attorneys all had trouble following him. But, going back over the videotapes of his technical presentations and stopping them where a lack of experience in the area makes it difficult to follow in real time, his explanations are perfectly coherent.
In his questioning of Dennis Fung, Andrea Mazzola and Collin Yamauchi he uncovered gross irregularities in the collection, documentation, security and analysis of blood evidence. He showed not only the weaknesses in the system that made unintentional contamination possible he showed how easy it would have been to access and tamper with other key pieces of evidence. He went farther than that by showing that the evidence was surreptitiously accessed and tampered with. It was during his questioning of Dr. Henry Lee that Lee demonstrated how easy it was to tell whether blood drops at a crime scene came from a stationary source or one in motion.
Shahian, Cynthia (Cici)Prosecution witness, friend of Nicole Brown Simpson, Faye Resnick and Denise Brown (see Girls, The). Robert Kardashians first cousin. She worked for the publisher of Dove Press, the company that published Faye Resnicks O.J. book and looked at publishing Mark Fuhrmans until the release of the McKinny tapes made him damaged goods. Shahian testified that Nicole showed her the letter O.J. wrote threatening to report her to the IRS if she persisted in her claim to the IRS that she resided at Rockingham a year and a half after shed moved out. The prosecution used that instance of Nicoles willingness to commit fraud at O.J.s expense and her reaction to his reaction as evidence of O.J.s abuse leading to murder. The day Nicole showed Shahian the letter, was the same day that Nicole supposedly called a battered womens shelter (see Ney, Nancy) to say that O.J. was stalking her and threatening to kill her. Nicole never told anyone, including Cynthia Shahian that she made the call.
Shipp, RonaldProsecution witness, former LAPD Academy instructor in spouse abuse, Johnnie Cochrans first cousin, friend of Mark Fuhrman, Denise Brown, Faye Resnick and O.J. Simpson. He testified that O.J. told him in private that hed had dreams of killing Nicole. Other witnesses said that he was never alone with O.J. at the time and place he said the conversation took place. While it was widely reported that the police allowed O.J. to get away with beating Nicole because of all the cops he entertained in his home, Shipp was the one who invited cops he wanted to impress to O.J.s home, mostly to play tennis. Shipps last job in the LAPD, before he left the force with a substance abuse problem in 1989, was as an expert in forgery. He "counseled" Nicole on spouse abuse and told stores similar to hers about O.J.s abuse of her. His first-hand accounts of O.J.s "alter-ego" matches those of Mark Fuhrman, Faye Resnick, Denise Brown, John Edwards and whoever wrote the diary allegedly written by Nicole.
Sims, GaryDirector of the California Dept. of Justice Lab. The high level of professionalism he demonstrated made him an excellent witness for the prosecution and the defense. Through his testimony the prosecution was able to prove beyond any doubt O.J. Simpsons DNA was found in various incriminating places. But his lab also discovered wet transfer stains on blood sample wrappings that should have been dry and a small fraction of the amount of O.J.s DNA in each sample. These were on the swatches supposedly taken from the blood drops on Bundy next to the bloody shoeprints. Whereas on drop of blood contains about 14, 000 nanograms of DNA the ones identified as O.J.s next to the shoeprints all had less than 40. The defense was therefore able to raise a legitimate question of how O.J.s DNA ended up where it did in the lab. Berry Sheck was able to show that the LAPD labs Collin Yamaguchi processed the blood evidence he sent to the DOJ is ways that permitted cross-contamination and increased the likelihood that it would happen (see Yamauchi and GIGO). Sims confirmed the fact a sufficiently degraded sample of anyones blood will show no DNA whatsoever but test positive for a sample of whatever DNA comes in contact with it, but doubted that it happened in Simpson case. He did admit that the broken chain of custody from collection to testing made it impossible to tell where the tested samples had originated.
Tanner, StewartMezzaluna waiter, friend of Ron Goldman. He testified that he and Goldman had planned to meet after work at another bar about eight miles south of Mezzalunas. Most investigators took that as corroboration of the idea that Ron would not have gone to see Nicole that night if Juditha Brown hadnt left her glasses at the restaurant because he had other plans. The westbound direction in which Goldman parked his borrowed car said otherwise. In addition, Tanner said under cross-examination that the plans were not firm. The three-way involving Faye Resnick, Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman was firm; only Faye didnt make it.
Terry, Andrea (see Bell, Kathleen).
Time Magazine (see n-word).
Toobin, JeffreyJournalist, author. Like Dominick Dunne, he was one of the few people granted a permanent seat in Judge Itos courtroom. He was there to write about the trial for the New Yorker with the understanding that he would write a book. O.J.s attorney, Robert Shapiro, fed him information about Mark Fuhrmans racism. He was reluctant to follow up on the tip until his wife told him of a black man she knew who had a run-in with Fuhrman (see Bowers, Jarvis). He got some criticism for his reports on Fuhrman, but more than made up for it with his best-selling book The Run of His Life: The people vs. O.J. Simpson and his media appearances to promote it.
Many African-Americans who followed his work saw him as being as racist as Fuhrman in his zeal to make O.J. Simpson appear to be a murderer. His book is, in fact, loaded with inaccuracies, half-truths and racist assumptions about O.J. and the jurors who found him innocent (see n-word). His attack on the first jurys "candlepower" set the standard for how the media in general would regard anyone who expressed doubt of O.J.s guilt.
Vannatter, Det. PhilipOne of two lead detectives from the elite Robbery/Homicide Division. He wrote the search warrant that Judge Ito said showed "a reckless disregard for the truth." Among other false statements he knowingly made was the contention that Simpson left for Chicago on an unscheduled flight. In the criminal trial, he told Robert Shapiro that O.J. was no more a suspect than Shapiro was, when he entered his property without a warrant by allowing Mark Fuhrman to climb the wall and let him and the other detectives in. Fuhrmans name was not mentioned in the warrant. Vannatter claimed to have discovered the blood drops on Rockingham. However, in the civil trial, Officer Thompson testified that Mark Fuhrman pointed out the blood drops to him. Fuhrman said in his book that his partner Brad Roberts discovered them. Thompsons testimony suggests that it was Fuhrman or Roberts.
As Tom Langes partner, he co-authored the book Evidence Dismissed: The Inside Story of the Police Investigation of O.J. Simpson. The title of the book says it all. From the moment Vannatter and Lange saw the bodies at 875 South Bundy their actions demonstrated an interest in collecting and correlating only that evidence that implicated Simpson. They dismissed all other evidence with any excuse that would allow them to do so. The interview they had with O.J. was designed not to gather information, but to catch him in a lie.
They treated every apparent inconsistency as an attempt to deceive them. And they never bothered to check O.J.s explanation for the angle at which the Bronco was parked as a result of driving around the sharp angle of his driveway. If they had, they would have seen that it matched the geometry of the location, the proportions of the Bronco and the width of the driveway far better than Mark Fuhrmans theory of a wild flight from Bundy.
During Johnnie Cochrans summation, he separated Vannatter from Lange when he labeled Vannatter and Fuhrman "the twin devils of deception." Vannatter did, in fact, lie about O.J.s Chicago flight. And, for reasons even he cant explain, he checked out O.J.s vial of blood from the lab and carried it with him to Rockingham. In the end, it was fortunate for the prosecution and ultimately for the plaintiffs that he did because it kept the defense from seeing the exculpatory blood trail that O.J. left at Rockingham for what it was. They argued, instead, that Vannatter planted it. The prosecution showed that he couldnt have. But the important thing from the standpoint of another detective gaining access to the blood was how easily Vannatter was able to get soul possession of it to do whatever he chose to do. No one who made that mistake with Fuhrman would be likely to admit it.
ViertelsThe garage where O.J.s impounded Bronco was stored. Everyone familiar with Viertels knew that it was not a secure facility. That was one of the problems with the blood found inside of the Bronco. To rule out the possibility that the blood was planted, the prosecution had to show that the vehicle was inaccessible to anyone who may have wanted to do it. The defense showed that it was easily accessible to anyone. Photos picturing a card with a June 14 date next to the blood-smeared console and instrument panel were used to impeach the defense witness who said he didnt see any blood on the 15th. It can as easily be said that two people (see Mulldorfer, Det. Kelly, and Meraz, John) who entered the Bronco after that without seeing blood impeached the integrity of the photo.
Walker, Dr. LenoreSpouse abuse expert. Her work on spouse abuse led her to coin the phrase, "battered womans syndrome" and made her the worlds leading authority in the field. She examined O.J., assuming that he had beaten Nicole on New Years Day, 1989 and wasnt man enough to admit it. Still, she found no pattern of escalating violence in his relationship with Nicole which was typical of abusers who go on to kill the object of their abuse. She also found his promiscuousness incompatible with the profile of a stalker. Stalkers are intensely monogamous. Like the other leaders in their fields of expertise who didnt see the evidence of guilt that the prosecution and the press wanted them to, her findings were also dismissed.
Wasz, WilliamCrack addict, stalker, car thief. As part of the case that the prosecution tried to make to show stalking behavior on O.J.s part, William Colby was called to testify to seeing O.J. creeping around outside of Nicoles home on Gretna Green in 1993. On cross-examination he admitted to calling 911 only because the man he saw was black and in Colbys opinion, "didnt look like he belonged in the neighborhood." Only later did he discover who the man was and why he was there. Nicole had told friends and her former husband that she thought she was being stalked and that she feared for herself and her children. Subsequent to her death, Denise Brown, Ron Shipp, and Faye Resnick named O.J. as the stalker she feared.
The murder also brought to light a car theft that proved to be tied to the real stalker, William Wasz. He was arrested and jailed for stealing Paula Barbiaris white sports utility vehicle in January of 94. He was still in jail when the murders occurred and his attorney turned over to police a detailed log of Nicoles activities found in Waszs possession after his arrest. When prosecutors could not connect Wasz to O.J., they lost interest in him. Neither the prosecution nor the defense attempted to see if there was a connection between Wasz and other cocaine addicts close to Nicole like Denise Brown, Ron Shipp and Faye Resnick. No one looked for a connection between him and a former narcotics cop named Mark Fuhrman or his partner Brad Roberts.
Whitehurst, FredricFBI special agent. After the testimony of Agent Roger Martz, he came forward to say that Martz routinely slanted his laboratory test results in favor of the prosecution. Rockney Harman, the deputy prosecutor who asked Martz to prove that there was no EDTA in the samples he was sent, ridiculed Whitehurst as a fanatic. He said that with no direct knowledge of the EDTA testing procedure that he was calling into question he had no standing to say anything about Agent Martz. O.J.s attorneys argued that if Whitehurst knew how Martz used the prestige of the FBI lab to help the prosecution as a general rule, he didnt have to know the specifics of his finding in the O.J. case to know that they were suspect. They argued that the jurors should be allowed to hear his testimony and decide for themselves whether it was relevant to the case at hand. Judge Ito ruled that the prosecution had the better argument and the jury was not allowed to hear his testimony.
After the civil trial ended in a popular verdict against O.J., largely because of the blood evidence presumed to be valid, Martz lost his job. Investigators found that he manipulated key evidence in favor of the prosecution in the Word Trade Center bombing case.
Wolf, Dr. BarbaraForensic pathologist. Michelle Kestler allowed her to look at the socks that were supposed to have Nicoles blood on them but she did not allow her to hold them up to the light to see for herself. She was not allowed to handle them at all until the blood tests came back positive. She did see a fingerprint in blood on a lens in Juditha Browns glasses. The lens disappeared. The fingerprint was never identified.
Wood, Judge WilliamNorth Carolina judge. He listened to the McKinny taps and ruled that they should not be handed over to the defense in the O.J. Simpson case because the probative value was outweighed by the prejudicial effect. Indeed, he ruled that the tapes had no value in the Simpson case. He was the first to argue that Mark Fuhrman was merely playing a role on the tapes. He was the first to argue that Fuhrmans violent, racist statements and boasts of being able to plant evidence against black men, to lie effectively under oath and get away with it was mere puffery. He was overruled by the North Carolina Court of Appeals. But Marcia Clark took up his argument and, for the most part, Judge Ito accepted it, allowing the jury to here only Fuhrmans irrelevant references to the n-word.
Yamauchi, CollinNYPD lab technician. Chief Chemist Greg Matheson gave him the job of making the initial identification of the blood evidence taken from Rockingham and Bundy. Most writers who mentioned his part in the case stressed his statement that he thought O.J. was in Chicago at the time of the murders. But to other observers, he behaved in court and in the lab as though he was convinced of O.J.s guilt before he started his tests and was just going through the motions. He processed the evidence six times faster than his counterpart at the California Department of Justice; he did not change gloves between sample testing; he kept different samples on his workbench at the same time; he allowed some of O.J.s blood to spill down the outside of the test tube. The spilled blood gave the defense a chance to argue that it was the source of his blood found on the glove. It gave the prosecution a chance for the jurors to infer an innocent explanation for some of the missing blood.
York, Cpt. MargaretLAPD Internal Affairs Director, Judge Lance Itos wife. Before the McKinney tapes came to light where he made insulting, sexist statements about her as a police lieutenant, she made a signed statement that she knew little more about Fuhrman than his name. However, as his watch commander at LA West, where he was assigned in 1984 when his medical retirement was denied, she had to know him better than that. It was her job to know about his violent racism that he said was getting out of hand when he applied for the medical. Credible witnesses to shouting matches that she had with him over a crude racist demonstration contradicted her sworn statement.
Fuhrman boasted of one confrontation he had with her about her authority to give him an assignment he didnt want. He said in his first book that he challenged her directly, called in his delegate to the Police Protective League, and won. Fuhrman said that she didnt dare to challenge him again. The record bears him out on that score.
It also gives a rare insight into the power of Police Protective League delegates to put their members where they wanted them irrespective of their official rank in the LAPD. As a delegate to the PPL, Fuhrman may, therefore, have been able to arrange the posting of Ron Phillips to the job that assured Fuhrmans leading role in the O.J. Simpson murder investigation.
Zlomsowitch, KeithManager of the Brentwood Mezzaluna restaurant. He was the man O.J. saw Nicole having sex with on her living room couch. In an interview with Larry King, he said that he was intimidated by O.J. who approached him the following day about what he had seen through the window. Like Faye Resnick, he was one of the people the prosecutors relied on to paint a picture of O.J. as an insanely jealous stalker. They made it sound as though O.J. had been creeping around Nicoles house and peeking in her window through a tiny crack in the drapes when he saw her and Zlomsowitch having sex. According to O.J., he saw them because the curtains were not drawn and anyone walking past the house could have seen themthats what he was upset about.
The prosecutors decided not to put him on the witness stand when they found out more about him and his connection to the cocaine subculture that Nicole, Ron and Faye had apparently been a part of. They were afraid that he would not hold up well under cross-examination because the restaurant he managed in Brentwood was under local and federal investigation for illegal drug trafficking. He was also the manager of a Mezzaluna restaurant in Colorado, which was also under police surveillance for drug trafficking.
Furthermore, he confirmed what O.J. said about their only discussion of the 92 incident. O.J. shook his hand and told him to be more discrete. That, in turn, is indirect conformation of what O.J. said he was so upset about on the 911 call taped in 93. He was afraid that she was again associating with undesirable characters, that she was not being discrete in her sexual relations with Zlomsowitch and his associates, and it would have a harmful affect on the children.
It was Nicole who asked O.J. to keep an eye on the house in the latter part of 93 because she feared that she was being stalked. She may have gotten that impression from the man who was indeed stalking her, or from the narcotics agents who were watching her, Faye and Keith Zlomsowitch. She expressed no such fears about being stalked around the time O.J. witnessed the sex scene with her and Zlomsowitch in 92.
Is possible that Nicole staged the 92 sex scene to make O.J. jealous? Considering the sexually explicit conversation that she and Faye had about other men in the presence of Christian Reichardt and O.J., its not out of the question. If O.J. could have been provoked into striking her after the 89 incident, the prenuptial agreement she made with him would have been voided and half of his thirty or forty million dollars would have been hers.
Is it possible that Fuhrman was telling the truth when he boasted to fellow officers of having an affair with Nicole around the time of Nicoles window scene with Zlomsowitch? Could he have been expecting a million-dollar payoff from her after her divorce for advising her to call 911 whenever she and O.J. got into a heated argument? Could the window scene have been his idea? Such an arrangement would have to be a secret, in which case Zlomsowitch would not have known that he was being set up, too. We can do no more than speculate about that.
We dont have to speculate about the interest police narcotics agents had in O.J., Nicole, Faye Resnick, and Keith Zlomsowitch in the early 90s. We dont have to speculate about the interest police narcotics agents had in O.J. and Nicole since the late 70s. We dont have to speculate about the interest Mark Fuhrman had in O.J. and Nicole between the late 70s and early 90s, or the job he had in the mid 80s when he first entered their lives. He was a police narcotic agent. We know, from his own words, that he had a "get rich quick mentality" and that he was pursuing several tracks at once to achieve his goals. We know that Fuhrman did everything in his power from that point forward to achieve fame and fortune by manipulating the image of an African-American icon to fit the racist stereotypes associated with one of his favorite words. He achieved results that any nazi would be proud of through his participation in one of the most famous murder cases of all time.
Mark Fuhrman got what he wanted by adopting the role of Iago in Brentwood.
Today is November 16, 1998. Last week O.J. Simpson was in the news again because the court overturned the ruling that awarded him custody of his minor children. Earlier this year, a knife was supposedly found buried on the grounds of his former Rockingham estate. Somewhere in between those events, Mark Fuhrman and Dan Petrocelli went on the media talk show circuit selling new books about how brilliant they are.
Ironically, it was Fuhrman and Petrocelli who gave me some of my biggest leads in finding out what really happened on South Bundy on the evening of June 12, 1994. Petrocellis questions to O.J. about his alibi were crucial in confirming it. So was his advice about details. He said, "The truth is in the details." He was right. Only he ignored all of the details that exonerated O.J. and elaborated on the ones that appeared on the surface to condemn him. Fuhrman, known for paying attention to details that others missed, did the same thing. Only he had more details to work with and a lack of imagination that made them easy to trace to their primary sourceHollywood.
Fuhrmans own words about his interest in the movies and his part in the Simpson case borrowed so much from Hollywood that I knew his lack of imagination would give him away if he was the killer. My sister Sara was the first to put that thought into words when I showed her one of my early drafts of Fuhrman at the Movies. "Wow!" she said...It's like he has no imagination." When I mentioned the fact that he was a body builder, she put that together with his primative attitude toward women and the knife used in the killing and said, "He thinks he's TarzanI bet his wife's name is Jane." His second wife's name was Janet.
It took me months to pick up on the importance of names to a man like Fuhrman apart from the obvious things he might have done with Othello and Denzel Washington's character P.K. in Ricochet. What struck me was his admission of borrowing as much material as he did from writers like Joseph Wambaugh (a former cop) and movie cops like Dirty Harry. And there were so many movie clichés attached to the evidence and Mark Fuhrman's connection to them: The killers unique shoeprints, the stopped watch turned back to the wrong time, the handsome hero rushing to the rescue of a beautiful woman, etc.
I wanted to know why Fuhrman made an issue of Kato's shoes, the "similar" pattern of the soles and the difference in the size shortly before he went outside and found the glove. I wanted to know why he insisted on setting the time of the killing back to 10:00 in his book, as the killer did on Nicole's watch, when everything a detective who paid attention to detail would have observed said 10:34. I wanted to know why he laid out a detailed sequence of events from the killing time to the last minute trip to the airport that could never have happened outside of a time machine or a bad movie.
Bad movies are often bad copies of good ones. But the good onesthe very best onestell us something worth knowing about the real world: Take, for example, the story involving an ex-football player who made it big in another line of work. His adult daughter from his first marriage lived with him in a rich, white neighborhood in West LA. His second wife was a much younger woman, a beautiful blond that he slapped around. Well, thats what she said. Then one of them ended up as the victim and the other the accused in one of the most talked-about murder cases of the century.
Who can forget that night in mid-June shortly after 10:00 P.M.when the tall, handsome, star of film and television killed a man in a small confined area, a man who found himself in the wrong place at the wrong time. Who can forget that big tank of a vehicle he drove recklessly through a stoplight, almost colliding with another vehicle after he murdered the woman he said he loved? Who can forget the dark blue outfit he wore, the hat he forgot, the shoeprints he left, the fact that he couldn't stop sweating, or the trail of his own blood dripping so conspicuously from his left side? Who can forget his obsession with the blond that drove him to kill her or those incriminating documents she put in her safe deposit box?
Yeah, who can forget Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwick in Double Indemnity? What a great flick!
Based on a true incident, it begins with the shadow of a man who could be one of two men, a killer or his victim. It has a speech about " crooked dreams a doctor, and a bloodhound, and a cop and a judge, and a jury, and a father confessor all in one." You get all of that in the William Beaumont and the James Crocker version of "Shadow Play" written for The Twilight Zone. When you add a screenwriter named Mark Fuhrman to those who might have been influenced by Double Indemnity and "Shadow Play" you get the whole movie and both versions of the teleplay. You get the 90s way of making a killing on a killing with inside knowledge, celebrity status and spin control. You get the portions of Fuhrmans first book that describe Simpson the way Raymond Chandler and Billy Wilder described Fred MacMurray.
If Fuhrman honestly thought the killing could have begun at ten o'clock, where did he get the idea that O.J. sped away in his Bronco after remembering that he had a plane to catch? Even if you speculate that the attack lasted 15 or 20 minutes and accept Fuhrman's theory that the dog would not have started barking until the attack was over if O.J. was the killer, what was the rush? Driving normally to avoid attracting attention, it would have taken him no more than six minutes to get home. Driving like a wild man because he wasn't thinking rationally, he might have knocked off a minute or two. The evidence for such a reckless flight consists entirely of a con-artist's discredited testimony and Fuhrman's description and interpretation of the Bronco's parking angle and the piece of wood lying near the front of it.
The wild flight theory did serve one useful purpose, considering the fact that the Bronco belonged to Hertz rent-a-car. The word "flight" itself conjured up images of running and images of air travel. It automatically brought to mind the Hertz television commercials featuring O.J. with two good knees running through airports.
Remember witness testimony of O.J.'s casual clothes, his funny walk and his impeccable grooming on the night of the murders when he was leaving for the airport, when he got there and during his flight? Fuhrman wrote that he liked airports and getting there an hour ahead of schedule to watch people, to "analyze their dress, walk, grooming..." Was this an attempt to evoke memories of the killer waking away from Bundy and combine them with Hertz commercial images of O.J. running to catch a plane? All of the subtle memory cues were there to go with Fuhrman's theory of O.J. racing from Bundy to Rockingham straight through a stoplight and coming to a sudden halt. But was he also giving away something he didn't intend to about his dress, his walk, his grooming and his interest in airports? Was there a pattern in films that matched his preoccupation with air travel and "time travel," a pattern that matched his theories, his actions and the wrong (ten o'clock) time on Nicole's broken watcha man's watch?
Yes there was.
Is there a connection between them that the killer might have picked up subconsciously, obsessed over and used to plan and carry out a crime that matched the evidence in the Simpson case?
Yes there is.
That connection is an actor named Lloyd Bochner, not to be confused with Lloyd Bridges who appeared in the 1980 comedy Airplane! (a woman in Airplane! has a man's broken watch). Bochner appeared in a brief scene of a 1989 movie called Millennium, which has much in common with Fuhrman's theory of O.J.'s mad flight from Bundy and a weapon used to stun. It has number switches and identity switches. The doomed Minneapolis flight number is 835. Nicole's condo number was 875 (in Airplane!, a plane bound from LA to Chicago has a stopover in Minneapolis). In Millennium, a plane crash investigator tells Bochner about broken mechanical watches and digital watches running backward (in Beetlejuice, a plain crash brings a black football player together with a murdered white woman). On the wall above the investigator is an analog clock that reads 10:17, roughly halfway between the time of the killing and the time frozen on Nicoles broken watch. 10:17 is the most likely time that a witness saw a light-colored SUV in the alley where Fuhrman theorized O.J. went after the murders.
More about Beetlejuice and more about Lloyd Bochner later. There are other links.
A 1985 movie called Guilty Conscience, about a man planning to commit a murder and plant false evidence on a rug very much like O.J.'s, begins with ten o'clock on the man's watch. He is at a banquet with plenty of witnesses to give him an alibi while he slips out unnoticed to commit the crime. He has a female accomplice who gains access to his victim's safe deposit box by forging her signature. The man is not really guilty because he is only imagining various scenarios, the first of which he dreams up while he is on an airplane bound for San Francisco. He lands at the airport an hour ahead of schedule.
Other Guilty Conscience links to the Bundy murders include a BAR-B-Q, missing keys, a broken prenuptial agreement, a philandering husband and a male and female murder victim. The killing in Guilty Conscience takes place on a weekend in the middle of June (the 15th). It has a reference to the home team which a football fan would interpret as the San Francisco 49ers. Mark Fuhrman played football in high school where a black star on an opposing team, from one of only two black families in his hometown of Eatonville, Washington, dated a white girl. He knew enough about pro football to know that O.J. Simpson played his final years with the 49ers, and that O.J. stood for Orenthal James.
Guilty Conscience also segues into Millennium by way of a key reference to a woman in Canada and the lead female character's name in both movies.
Millennium was filmed in Canada. In Guilty Conscience, Louise is the imagined victim and the real killer. In Millennium, Louise is a time traveler who creates temporal paradoxes (the killer at Bundy left temporal paradoxes at Rockingham). She is a reckless driver who blasts through a red light and comes to a sudden stop almost exactly the way Fuhrman said O.J. did after the killing when he remembered he had a flight to catch. Louise impersonates flight attendants, dresses to look like them, silently incapacitates them and their passengers with a weapon called a stunner, takes them away and replaces them with dead bodies. She describes herself this way: "If you want somebody bashed in the head, I'm your girl." She recalls the battle of the sexes and asks, "Who won?"
From this point on, try to keep in mind the "electric chair" in Stanley Milgram's 1960-1963 experiment and the man who sat in it again and again, and the man he was pretending to be. At the end of Millennium a man dies in an "electric chair." Two missing stunners lead to a series of time travels to the early 1960s and the late 1980s (the weapons used to stun Nicole and Ron by bashing them in the head are still missing). The time travelers come and go through a gate controlled by the man in the electric chair whose main concern is avoiding temporal paradoxes that could bring his whole world to an end. The time quest ends with the electrocution death of a man whose life, like O.J.'s, "affects thousands of lives in an endless chain," and changes the future for the better.
From Mark Fuhrman's point of view, as we head into the millennium, the figurative execution of O.J. Simpson day after day in the electronic media has changed the future for the better.
As you will see, the Millennium link to an early 1960s and a late 1980s version of a Twilight Zone screenplay about dreams and reality relates to the O.J. trial only as it relates to the world of dreams and reality according to Mark Fuhrman. It's a world in which he sees himself as both the condemned prisoner and the successful man who condemned him. As the killer and the star witness in the O.J. trial he could have been either. Had anyone noticed the temporal paradox he created with the stick and the glove afther the torturing and killing he did himself, he would have been a prime candidate for a small cell on death row.
Like most men, Fuhrman and the actor playing the condemned man in the first version of The Twilight Zone screenplay "Shadow Play" parted their hair on the left. In the 80s version, the prisoner has a fluffed up hair-style very much like Fuhrman's parted near the center like Adam in Beetlejuice. Only the prisoner's part is on the right the way Fuhrman would see himself in a mirror when he was combing his hair. In the 60s version, the man who parts his hair on the right near the center is the prosecutor.
I tried to wrap this book up a year ago. I couldnt because I kept running into scenes from the movies that I had to include to confirm one assertion or another that Id made based on logical inferences alone. The only possible solution to a valid logic problem is the truth. It can't be anything but the truth. The trouble is, most people dont understand the relevance of evidence that follows their first impressions because they wont stick with any logic problem long enough to see all of the possibilities. The first obvious answer to the first obvious question is usually were all rational thought on the matter ends.
Think of O.J. cutting his finger the night his ex was murdered and Fuhrmans finger pointing to the bloody glove at Bundy before he found the bloody glove at Rockingham. Logically, one of those highly improbable incidents had to be a coincidence, right?
O.J.s cut finger is significant only because he was accused of slashing two people to death with a knife and leaving a trail of blood from the murder scene to his driveway. The bleeding killer theory was Fuhrmans. The story of a blood trail going from Rockingham to Bundy came from Fuhrman and his partner Brad Roberts. Assuming that O.J. knew nothing about the murders until Ron Phillips, the man who called Fuhrman and Roberts in on the case, called him in Chicago, the real killer would have had to improvise. He would have had to make O.J.s cut finger part of the setup to frame him, and there would be all manner of anomalies associated with the blood. In that case there would be fewer coincidences to account for. The fewer the better for a more likely representation of what actually happened (see Occam's Razor)...There are all manner of anomalies associated with the blood.
People expect to see a few things they can't explain and they assign no special meaning to a few coincidences here and there. So what if O.J. and Fuhrman are roughly the same height and build, that they wear the same size shoe and drove light-colored SUVs on the night of the double murder? Coincidence can explain that. So what if Fuhrman used the n-word when he talked about his historyor his fantasies, if you preferof harassing, beating, killing and framing people? Coincidence can explain that. So what if Mark Fuhrman found so much of the evidence that the LAPD lab tied to O.J. and proposed so many of the theories that matched so much of the evidence before it was found? Coincidence can explain that, too, if you ignore the evidence that matches a frame.
Coincidence is something everyone can understand. Weve all seen it and we all know what it means when we see it too often. It is, by definition, an improbable conjunction of unrelated events that only appear to be related. Therefore, we know in our bones that the likelihood of an actual connection between two events that appear to be related goes up exponentially with each occurrence.
An excess of credible coincidences is what you get with Fuhrman's psychiatric evaluations as a violent, "narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive personality," together with his military and police training, his influence as a racist police union leader and his three timely appearances in O.J.'s life. It's what you get when you factor in his moonlighting job at a movie theater in 1991, his dreams of violence and torture, his theories about O.J.'s guilt, and way too many scenes from far too few movies. There are way too many links from one popular film to the other that resemble free associations we all make with bits and pieces of things that interest us to give us new ideas, or what we think are new ideas, when we put them together.
In O.J.'s last year of football, he played for the San Francisco 49ers who wore red jerseys with white numbers. Tim Burton's 1988 black comedy Beetlejuice (with Robert Goulet from The Naked Gun 2 1/2 ) has a football player in a red jersey with white numbers wearing O.J.'s number 32 standing near a dead woman with a yawning gash in her throat. The dead woman with the cut throat has a lot to say and everyone pays close attention to her every word. Her name is Juno (the Roman goddess who gave the month of June its name). The name of the movie's male protagonist is Adam. In The Addams Family movie (1991), Christopher Lloyd's character secretly engineers a scene in which a female has her throat slashed in a Shakespearean duel (long blade in right hand, short blade in left, lots of blood). Christopher Lloyd also appeared in a movie linked to a scene from The Naked Gun 2 1/2 which, in turn, is linked directly to something peculiar that Mark Fuhrman did when he questioned Kato Kaelin.
Beetlejuice (1988) and The Addams Family (1991) have other things in common with the The Naked Gun (1988), The Naked Gun 2 1/2 (1991) and the Simpson case. But if movies did give Mark Fuhrman ideas about leading a murder/frame-up conspiracy and doing the actual killing himself, there would have to be much more. There is, in fact, so much more that in watching the movies you can literally see him thinking. You simply can't make those kinds of connections with anyone else on the planet.
Mark Fuhrman had a good reason for comparing himself to the successful screenwriter Joseph Wambaugh when he wrote, "The similarities are not mere coincidence." It was the only believable thing he could say about the characters and language he used in his failed efforts at writing a screenplay to explain his words and manner on the McKinny tapes. In doing so, he also confirmed his awareness of borrowing ideas and images from other screenwriters, of seeing himself and others in various roles and of acting out various roles that came straight from the movies. That "...similarities are not mere coincidence" line from his O.J. book is what got me thinking about all of the evidence in the case that seemed to come from movies.
First was the cap that O.J. wore in The Naked Gun, along with the covert surveillance that would have been required if he had been framed. Then came a slew of movie clichés like evidence so personal left at the crime scene that it could belong only to the accused, a watch broken in a violent struggle with the hands presumably stopped at the time of death, etc. But only when I saw Shakespeares Othello wrapped in a screenplay about an actor who confused himself with the title character he played, did I begin to see the Hollywood connection between Iago and Fuhrman. Only then did I begin to see the conscious link between Mark Fuhrman and The Naked Guns Frank Drebin. Only then did I begin to look for signs of subconscious awarenessfor details in the movies that matched details of the crime and Fuhrman's role in the investigation.
Mind you, the only movies I could consider had to be made prior to June of 1994. They had to be movies that Fuhrman was likely to have seen for one reason or another. They had to reflect his history and his participation in the Simpson case or to be linked in some clear-cut way to another screenplay that did. They had to be movies that would have left a lasting impression on a bright, violent, LAPD cop who prided himself on spotting small but meaningful details that others missed, on his ability to plant evidence and to get away with murder. These are way too many conditions that have to be meet for all of them to be coincidental.
If you havent read Chapter 29: Fuhrman at the Movies, I can only assure you that all of these conditions were met, and the number of connections is staggering. The following are my latest observations, a small fraction of the total that I didnt incorporate in the chapter simply because it was too much of a hassle for my typesetter to make the changes. Besides, I had more than enough already to make the case .
(5) Fuhrmans theory . beneath a truck.
(5) Fuhrmans theory of how the short piece of wood beside O.J.s Bronco came to be there is only a slight variation on a scene in which O.J. lies on a short piece of wood (with wheels and a cushion) beneath a Ford truck in an alley.
It has (6) bugs being planted...strike a familiar note?
It has (6) bugs being planted, (7) a clear set of shoeprints leading away from the murder scene, (8) an appearance on Geraldo by a key player in a big murder case and (9) a woman named Jane with a delicately beautiful face and breasts that seem to say, "Hey, look at these," (Nicole had breast augmentation surgery). (10) It has the same woman with a nasty bump on her head (Nicole) who reminds the detective of someone else (his ex-wifes name was Janet). (11) It has a vital piece of evidence found on a curb (a wallet in the movie, a pair of glasses in the Simpson case), (12) a timepiece, set to the wrong time by the killer. It has (13) a lost hat (14) a lost dark brown leather glove (15) a German Stiletto, (15) a twisted interpretation of the movie Ghosts, (16) a police scanner in a private vehicle (17) the leader of a murder conspiracy with a German name vowing to do the killing himself, (18) Drebin and Nordberg wearing and losing identical knit caps, (19), a sobriety test (Fuhrman gave Kato one shortly before he found the glove), and (20) lots of stunt doubles. In fact, the plot rests on the idea of one person being able to impersonate another.
In a Twilight Zone episode, alluded to in The Naked Gun 2 ½, a character from that episode, played by Lloyd Bochner both times, ran into a banquet scene carrying a book called, "How to Serve Man." Does the phrase "To Protect and Serve" strike a familiar note?
If that doesnt do it for you, consider another Twilight Zone screenplay in which the same people play out the same courtroom-to-death row nightmare endlessly in different roles. In James Crockers 1988 version of "Shadow Play," starring Peter Coyote, the links between his television drama, the Bundy murders, The Naked Gun 2 ½, and my MFG scenario are too precise to be coincidental.
It involves "...a murder trial-a big murder trial," an innocent man accused of "a brutal and despicable crime," and a hangmans noose. In The Naked Gun 2 ½ a strolling "cigarette girl" in a bar carries a tray with pills, tobacco products, a German Stiletto and a hangmans noose.
Thats not all there is to this portion of my thesis that Mark Fuhrman dreamed up the nightmare of O.J. Simpsons murder trial. Of all the books written by anyone who had anything to do with the case, Fuhrman was the only one to write about himself as an innocent man who was tried, convicted and sentenced to death in the same day. His exact words were: "...Marcia Clark not only indicted me, but she also tried, convicted and figuratively sentenced me to death. And she did so without appeal to reason or evidence..." In the previous chapter he compared himself with William Wallace who was beheaded by the English in Braveheart as "a hero of his people." Afterwards he used the old "...didn't know me from Adam" line which ordinarily would have meant nothing. But he was talking about a murder triala big murder trialand a nightmare verdict against Mark Fuhrman.
Consider this exchange between characters whose roles change from nightmare to nightmare. The one who speaks of being watched is a white woman in one dream and the black man with O.J.'s middle name in another. In the first dream she is the condemned man's defense attorney; in the next dream she is the judge who sentences him to death:
Lawyer: "Havent you ever thought to yourself, all this cant be real. I cant have a beautiful wife and a beautiful home and live in such a fine neighborhoodall of this is like a dream?"
Mark Richie: "Everyone has. If youre successful its easy to think its all a dream, sometimes. And if youre not successful its easy to look at life like a nightmare. He cant believe this is happening to him so he convinces himself its not happening, not really."
The name of Mark Richie's beautiful wife was Carol. The name of Mark Fuhrman's third beautiful wifethe wife he had when he investigated the Bundy murders and wrote the book that made him richwas Caroline. In every iteration of the dream Carol is the only character that comes back every time in the same role.
Mark Fuhrman was a failure who wrote of being "on stage" and dreamed out loud of having O.J.s success. He went so far as to boast of having sex with O.J.'s wife. He relished the idea of torturing people before killing them, and reported his recurring dreams of doing it to the LAPD psychiatrists he was tying to talk into giving him a disability retirement. The nightmare of the man in "Shadow Play" awaiting execution was definitely torture. The story that Fuhrman wrote and rewrote unsuccessfully for years was effectively killed in 1988 by the Frank Drebin character in The Naked Gun. Could Fuhrman have viewed The Naked Gun 2 ½ and his desire to kill Frank Drebin through the prism of "Shadow Play"? It looks that way to me.
To help you there, all you need is an episode of the "Twilight Zone" from the early 60s where Dennis Weaver cannot wake up .The same innocent man is found guilty and sentenced to death.
To help you there, all you need is the "Shadow Play" episode of The Twilight Zone. In the first version of the story written by Charles Beaumont in 1961, its Dennis Weaver as Adam Grant. He, too, keeps reliving the nightmare of being tried, sentenced and executed in one day for a murder he did not commit. But the day is not specified and he is scheduled to die in the electric chair. He does die in the electric chair. He "awakens" on trial in a variation of the same dream without the details of the 88 version that are tied to The Naked Gun 2 ½ by the Bundy killings. Whether its Beaumonts or Crockers version of "Shadow Play" the dreamer is white and a prominent death row inmate is black. In both versions of the story, other details of Adam Grants dream change. The prosecutor in one dream may be a cop, a judge, a priest, or a death row inmate in another, but they are all people hed met in the real world, and the basic scenario stays the same. Grant says, "It changes a little bit. The people get twisted around, but its the same dream."
In the original version, Grant tells a character, "I got you out of a bad movie I saw once, just like everything else in this corny dream." There is a character called Phillips, a clock with the wrong time and several details that the dreamer realizes cannot be right. There is also an unintended trip back in time courtesy of a continuity error in the screenplay's props. In one scene, a reporter is trying to persuade Richie to visit Grant on death row. A clock in the background shows a time of 9:50. In the next scene, Richie does visit Grant. Just before he arrives one of Grant's fellow death row inmate checks the time for him on his wristwatch. It's 9:05. In the Bundy murders, Nicoles watch was stopped at the wrong time. The crystal was shattered. In "Shadow Play" Grant realizes that a death row inmate would not have been allowed to wear a wristwatch. He says, "...something else that doesnt workthe watchbecause of the glass."
A lot of things about the Bundy murders dont work, until you look at it like a dream that Fuhrman is imposing on the rest of us. In the words of Adam Grant, "Its so pat. It doesnt work like that. But thats the way that I saw it in my mind so thats the way it is. Its like a movie."
And Mark Fuhrman, as Johnnie Cochran thought when he first saw him take the stand, looked like the LAPD detective from Central Casting. Is there any doubt that Mark Fuhrman thought so, too? Can there be any doubt that when he talked about being on stage because of his role in the "green-eyed monster" killing attributed to O.J. Simpson, he was playing the role of Iago in Brentwood?
Contact the author: Jasper Garrison